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Home Istilah-istilah Bridge

Istilah-istilah Bridge

Istilah-Istilah Bridge

Istilah Istilah Bridge

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Semua Halaman

A


Ace (As)

adalah kartu tertinggi dalam permainan bridge.

Acol
Sistem sederhana yang populer di Inggris, dengan penawaran natural, 4-kartu major, weak atau variable notrump.

Adjusted score
Suatu skor yang ditetapkan karena sesuatu kejadian yang tdiak biasa.

Advance cue-bid
suatu cue-bid yang dilakukan sebelum adanya suit yang disetujui.

Advance sacrifice
suatu tawaran jibaku yang dilakukan sebelum lawan menemukan kontraknya.

Alert
suatu cara yang digunakan pemain untuk memberitahukan kepada lawan atas suatu perjanjian yang tidak biasa.

Appeal
Suatu permintaan untuk mengkaji ulang keputusan yang sudah dibuat oleh pimpinan pertandingan.

Artifisial
(1) bukan natural;
(2) (dari satu penawaran) (a) tidak mengindikasikan keinginan untuk bermain pada suit yang ditawar (b) memberikan informasi yang relevan terhadap jenis truf tertentu selain yang ditawar atau keduanya ;
(2) (dari suatu sistem penawaran) berisi banyak perjanjian yang bersifat artifisial.

Asking bid
suatu penawaran yang meminta informasi tentang hal-hal khusus tentang pegangan partner (misal jumlah Ace, kontrol di suatu suit atau kualiatas suatu dukungan).

Asking cue-bid
suatu tawaran di suit lawan yang menanyakan yang meminta partner untuk menawar no trump bila punya penahan di suit tersebut. 

Attitude
Menyatakan apakah suatu defender ingin atau tidak ingin memainkan suatu suit dimainkan atau ingin atau tidak ingin memperlihatkan kekuatan di suit tersebut.

Autosplinter
Suatu tawaran yang menggambarkan suatu suit yang pendek dalam satu pegangan dengan satu suit panjang (seperti memberitahukan singleton pada pegangan dengan distribusi 6-3-3-1).

Avoidance
suatu teknik bermain, biasanya dilakukan deklerer yang membuat suatu defender tertentu tidak bisa memegang lead.



B


Backward Finesse

Sebuah finesse yang dilakukan secara berlawanan dari apa biasanya. Misalkan dummy pegang AJ9, deklerer memiliki K32. Cara main finesse yang Standar adalah finesse ke arah Jack, berharap menemukan queen di posisi yang benar; nah yang ini bermain sebaliknya, dengan mulai dengan jack, jika ditindih, anda finesse akan finesse angka sepuluh ke arah sebaliknya. Cara ini tentu berpeluang lebih kecil dari finesse biasa karena harus menemukan dua kartu kunci (Queen dan 10) pada posisi yang benar. Karena itu Backward finesse hanya dilakukan jika dari kalkulasi point menempatkan Queen pada posisi yang salah.

Balance
Distribusi 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, atau 5-3-3-2

Balancing
Melakukan penawaran yang menghidupkan kembali penawaran yang akan berakhir jika dia pass. Balancing dilakukan dengan asumsi partner memegang sejumlah point karena tawaran lawan yang mengindikasikan kekuatan yang terbatas.

Baron
(1) Sistem penawaran dari Ingrris yang pertama yang bersifat scientific;
(2) suatu tawaran satu step dibawah suit yang disetujui pada level 5 atau 6, meminta partner untuk bid 6 atau 7 dengan truf yang kuat.
(3) respond 2NT atas pembukaan 1 warna untuk menunjukkan pegangan balans, mulanya 16-18 point, saat ini 16-17 point; kadangkala 16 up tanpa batas atas.

Bath coup
Menunda memenangkan trik saat pegang ace-jack setelah lawan sebelah kiri (LHO) lead dari K-Q.

Bergen raises
Skema jawaban untuk pembukaan major (single raise = 6-9 points dengan 3 lembar truf; 3 club = 6-9 points dengan 4 lembar truf; 3 diamond = 10-11 points dengan 4 lembar truf; double raise = 0-5 points dengan 4 lembar truf).

Bermuda Bowl
Trophy untuk kejuaraan bridge utama dunia yang setara dengan World Cup di dunia sepakbola

Better minor
Suatu perjanjian untuk membuka minor yang lebih bagus jika pegangan distribusi 4=3=3=3 or 3=4=3=3.

Bid
Suatu keinginan untuk memenangkan sejumlah trik di atas 6, pada jenis tertentu (suit atau notrump); sejumlah trik dari 1 sampai 7 yang dikombinasikan dengan jenis trufnya (notrump, spades, hearts, diamonds atau clubs).

Biddable suit
Suatu suit yang panjang dan kuat yang beralasan untuk ditawar.

Bidding
Penawaran; fase permainan bridge dimana pemain menawar tentang besar dan jenis kontraknya.

Bidding boxes
Peralatan untuk bidding/penawaran.

Bidding system
Kumpulan perjanjian pasangan tentang arti dari suatu penawaran.

Big club
a strength-showing artificial one-club opening.

Black suits
spades dan clubs.

Blackwood convention
Suatu konvensi dimana seorang pemain bisa menanyakan jumlah As partnernya dengan menawar 4NT.

Blocking
menyebabkan suatu suit terblok.

Board
Papan yang dimainkan

Board-a-match
Sistem penilaian dalam virtal dimana setiap papan dinilai 1 point (suatu regu mendapat 1 point jika mempunyai nilai lebih tinggi dari nilai lawannya, 1/2 jika sama, 0 jika lebih rendah).

Book
Mendapatkan sejumlah trik yang diminta. Untuk kontrak 1 misalnya, 1+6=7 trik.

Bottom
Dalam perhitungan pasangan, nilai terendah dalam satu papan, biasanya NOL.

Broken sequence
Kombinasi seperti K-J-10.

Brozel
Suatu konvensi penawaran melawan pembukaan one-notrump : double = single suit apa saja; 2  minor =  suit tersebut dan hearts; 2 hearts = majors; 2 spades = spades dan a minor.

Business double
penalty double.




C


Caddy
Pembantu Director pertandingan, khususnya bertanggung jawab untuk membagikan board ke setiap meja.


California Cue-Bid
Suatu tawaran di warna lawan yang meminta partner untuk bid notrump jika punya stopper.

Call
Tawaran: pass, double atau redouble.

Canape
Menawar yang suit yang lebih pendek dulu baru yang panjang.

Cappelletti
Metoda defensif melawan pembukaan one-notrump lawan (double = penalty; 2 clubs = one-suiter ; 2 diamonds = majors; 2 major = major tersebut dan minor).

Captain /Kapten
Partner yang punya tanggungjawab dalam menentukan kontrak akhir untuk pasangannnya.

Card
kartu;

Card combination
Kombinasi kartu

Card reading
Analisa posisi kartu yang tak terlihat dari penawaran dan permainan.

Carding
(1) Sejumlah perjanjian antar partner yang berhubungan dengan arti dari kartu yang dimainkan dalam defense.
(2) pilihan dari kartu yang dimainkan sebagai defender; sinyal.

Carryover
Skor pada sesi sebelumnya yang ditambahkan untuk sesi selanjutnya.

Cash
Memainkan trik menang.

Cash out
Memainkan semua trik menang.

Change of suit
suatu tawaran di suit baru.

Cheapest bid
Bid terendah yang sah. [Atas 1 club, 1 diamond adalah cheapest bid.].

Checkback Stayman
Konvensi Stayman yang berlaku setelah opener rebid 1NT, kadang2 2NT.

Chinese finesse
Pemainan mengelabui dari deklerer yang melaukan finesse yang tanpa didukung oleh kartu dibawahnya, apakah karena salah atau karena kebrialianan. [Contoh: As dan angka 2 di meja dan queen-angka 3 di tangan declarer, lead queen dan kecil di meja adalah Chinese finesse.]

Choice-of-games cue-bid
Suatu cue-bid yang meminta partner memilih jenis truf untuk suatu game.

Claim
Pernyataan keinginan untuk memenangkan atau menyerahkan sejumlah trik sehingga trik berikutnya tidak perlu dimainkan.

Closed hand
Pegangan declarer.

Closed room
Ruangan pertandingan yang tidak boleh ditonton.

Club
Kelompok pemain yang bermain bridge bersama, atau tempat bermain.

Clubs
Ranking terendah suatu suit, symbol C.

Cold
Kontrak yang selalu bikin.

Colorful cue-bid
Suatu cue-bid atas pembukaan major (contoh: one spade--two spades) menyatakan two-suiter pada warna yang lain (pada contoh ini, two spades memperlihatkan suit berwarna merah).

Combination finesse
(1) finesse atas lebih dari satu kartu;
(2) finesse sederhana sebagai langkah awal finesse lainnya pada suit yang sama.

Come-on (signal)
Sinyal bertahan yng memberitahu partner untuk melanjutkan suit tertentu.

Competitive auction/bidding
suatu pelelangan dimana kedua pihak berusaha merebut kontrak;

Competitive double
suatu double yang memperlihatkan niali bukannya take out atau penalty.

Compound squeeze
Suatu bentuk squeeze dimana seorang lawan dipaksa di tiga suit dan yang satunya di dau suit.

Constructive
atas suatu tawaran yang menyatakan point tertentu.

Constructive raise
dukungan satu tingkat atas warna major yang memperlihatkan kekuatan kekuatan yang lebih dari normal (atau, kadang-kadang , nilai maximum untuk dukungan satu tingkat).

Contested auction
competitive bidding/auction.

Contract
Suatu  tawaran yang menyebutkan jumlah trik yang harus dimenangkan.

Contract bridge
Permainan bridge yang sekarang kit mainkan, ditemukan tahun 1925.

Control
(1) Kemampuan untuk mencegah lawan dari memenangkan trik secara cepat di suit selain truf  [first-round control = ace atau void, second-round control = king atau singleton, dan seterusnya];
(2) Adanya truf untuk mencegah lawan menguangkan kartu menangnya.

Control-bid
Suatu tawaran yang menyatakan kontrol di suatu suit (biasanya ada upaya ke slam);

Convention /Konvensi
Suatu pengertian antar partner yang mungkin tidak dimengerti oleh lawan jika tidak diterangkan.

Convention card
Sejumlah perjanjian dengan partner yang dituliskan dalam suatu form tertentu.

Cooperative double
Suatu double yang meminta partner memutuskan apakah lebih baik pass atau bid sesuatu.

Count signal / Sinyal Jumlah
(1) Suatu sinyal dalam defense yang memprlihatkan apakah seorang defender pegang jumlah kartu genap atau ganjil pada suatu suit;
(2) Suatu sinyal dalam defense yang memprlihatkan yang memperlihatkan dengan pasti jumlah kartu yang dipegang dalam suatu suit.

Coup / Kup
(1) proses memendekkan truf dengan maksud untuk menciptakan posisi akhir tertentu;
(2) Menangkap tanpa kalah atau untuk mengurangi kemampuan mendapatkan trik dari pegangan truf lawan dari kombinasi pemendekan truf  dan atau menyusun secara efektif lead kartu lain terhadap lawan tersebut pada trik akhir.

Coup-en-passant
Suatu bentuk permainan , memainkan suatu kartu lain bukan truf dengan maksud memmenangkan trik dengan truf yang bukan truf tertinggi yang berada dibelakang truf tinggi yang dipegang lawan.

Coup without a name /Kup tanpa nama
Scissors coup.

Cover / Tindih
Memainkan kartu lebih tinggi dari yang dimainkan oleh lawan pada trik yang sama.

Cover an honor with an honor / Tindih Honor dengan Honor
Suatu panduan yang menyatakan jika mungkin seseorang harus memainkan honor yang lebih tinggi dari pada yang dimainkan oleh lawan sebelah kanan.

Cover cards
Nilai (biasanya honor) yang bisa melindungi loser di tangan partner.

Crash
(1) akronim untuk Color, Rank And SHape, suatu defensif artifisial yang memperlihatkan pegangan  two-suited melawan pembukan strong club (double = black atau red suits; one diamond = major atau minor suits; one notrump = mix).

Criss-Cross
(1) (dalam penawaran) perubahan arti dari bid di dua suit (misal: 1C-2C: sama dengan 5+ diamond; 1C-2D: 5+ clubs);
(2) (dalam permainan) sejenis squeeze dimana penangkap untuk kedua tangan tidak diikuti oleh kartu kecil.

Crocodile coup
Memainkan kartu tinggi yang tidak biasa (seperti as dari  as-queen) untuk mencegah partner memperoleh lead (misalnya partner pegang selembar king).

Crossruff
Tema permainan dengan melakukan truf di kedua tangan.

Cue / Cue-bid
(1) Suatu tawaran di warna lawan ; [contoh: overcall two-spade atas pembukaan one-spade lawan.]
(2) Suatu tawaran pada warna yang secara artificial dipegang lawan ; [Contoh: overcall three-spade atas pembukaan three-heart lawan yang berarti pegang spades.]

Culbertson Four-Five Notrump
Konvensi slam dimana four notrump memperlihatkan nilai tertentu dan meminta partner tentang yang lainnya; metode yang kooperatif dibandingkan dengan Blackwood.

Culbertson system
Salah satu sistem penawaran pada awal contract bridge, dasar dari standard bidding di Amerika.

Curtain card /Surat Jalan
adalah catatan tertulis tentang hasil dan pegangan setiap pemain untuk menghindari kesalahan, biasanya pada pertandingan pasangan, sehingga setiap pemain bisa memeriksa pegangannya.




D


Danger hand / Tangan Bahaya
Salah satu lawan yang akan membahayakan kontrak anda jika mempunyai kesempatan memegang lead.

Datum
Nilai rata-rata (atau rata-rata tengah, dimana satu atau lebih skor yang dibuang dari masing2 ekstrim bawah dan atas) atas suatu deal dengan maksud untuk menghitung nilai pasangan.

Deal
(1) satu unit dari permainan bridge, misalnya deal no 25;

Dealer
(1) pemain yang membagikan kartu;
(2) pemain yang membuat penawaran pertama kali.

Declarer
Pemain yang pertama kali menawar strain/jenis truf pada kontrak akhir dari diantara pasangannya dan yang menjadi dalang untuk kartu dia dan partnernya.

Deep finesse
Finesse terhdapa lebih dari satu kartu, misalnya xxx-AQ10, anda fineese ke 10.

Defeat (the contract)
Mencegah declarer memenangkan trik yang yang dibutuhkannya untuk kontrak.

Defend
bertahan

Defender
Lawannya declarer.

Defense
Perlawanan atas sistem yang digunakan lawan.

Defensive bid
(1) suatu tawaran yang dibuat untuk mencegah lawan menawar pada kontrak tertentu; sacrifice;
(2) Suatu tawaran yang dibuat oleh pihak bertahan.


Defensive bidding
Suatu tawaran yang dibuat oleh pihak yang bukan pembuka penawaran.

Delayed
Penawaran yang tidak langsung dilakukan. [Contoh: Delayed support adalah dukungan yang diberikan pada putaran berikutnya dari penawaran. ]

Denomination
strain; salah satu dari empat suit atau notrump.

Dentist's Coup
Pengurangan kartu keluar yang aman dari lawan;

DEPO
akronim untuk Double Even Pass Odd, suatu metode untuk memperlihatkan As atau key card setelah Blackwood kita diinterferensi.

Deschapelles coup
pengorbanan kartu tinggi untuk menciptakan penangkap di tangan partner.

Deuce
Angka 2; kartu dengan ranking terendah.

Devil's coup
(1) an elopement that denies the opponents a trump trick they would get if trumps were led;
(2) (as commonly used) such an elopement when the opposing trump holding is exactly five cards including the queen and jack.

Develop
Menuakan

D.I.
(for declarative-interrogative) describing a four-notrump bid used as a general slam try.

Diagram
Bagan yang memperlihatkan posisi pemain dan kartunya.

Diamonds
Suit ranking ketiga, symbol: D.

Direction - Arah
(1) Lokasi pemain di meja bridge: Utara, Timur, Selatan atau Barat;
(2) Salah satu partnership Utara Selatan atau Timur Barat.

Directional asking-bid
suatu tawaran, biasanya cue-bid, dalam upaya menjadikan partner sebagai declarer pada kontrak notrump

Director
pimipinan pertandingan.

Discard
memainkan kartu lain selain yang dilead.

Discouraging card
suatu kartu yang dimainkan defender sebagai sinyall kepada partner agar jangan lead, atau tidak melanjutkan suatu suit atau menyatakan lemah di suit yanhg dimaksud.

Discovery play
suatu teknik bermain untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang kartu yang tak terlihat.

Distribution
(1) jumlah kartu pada tiap suit yang dipegang seorang pemain; [distribusi 5=4=3=1 = 5 spades, 4 hearts, 1 diamond dan 3 clubs]
(2) jumlah kartu pada suit tertentu yang dipegang masing2 pemain;

Distribution points /Point distribusi
point tambahan karena kemampuan mendapatkan trik untuk kartu panjang atau pendek dalam kontrak truf.

DONT
suatu konvensi melawan pembukaan one-notrump: double = one-suiter; 2 spades = natural; 2 suit lain  = suit tersebut dan suit diatasnya.

DOPE
akronim untuk Double 0dd Pass Even, suatu metode untuk menunjukkan As (atau key cards) setelah lawan intervensi Blackwood kita (atau key-card Blackwood).

DOPI
akronim untuk Double 0 Pass 1, uatu metode untuk menunjukkan As (atau key cards) setelah lawan intervensi Blackwood kita (atau key-card Blackwood).

Double
tawaran yang meningkatkan hasil yang didapat oleh pihak yang sukses.

Double-barrelled Stayman
two-way Stayman.

Double-dummy
semua ke-empat tangan dengan kartu terbuka;

Double finesse
finesse terhadap 2 kartu yang hilang, contoh xxx - AJ10.

Double jump
suatu tawaran yang satu tingkat di atas loncatan minimum pada truf yang sama. [Double Jump-overcall, Double Jump-preference, Double Jump-raise, Double Jump-rebid dan Double Jump-shift.]

Double key-card
key-card Blackwood dimana king diu warna dihitung sebagai key cards.

Double knockout
suatu bentuk turnamen dimana team yang kalah tidak langsung tersisih sampai dia kalah dua kali.

Double negative
tawaran negatif yang sebelumnya juga sudah memberitahukan kekuatan yang negatif.

Double raise
menawar 2 tingkat lebih tinggi di suit yang ditawar partner.

Double squeeze
tema paksa (squeeze) dimana kedua defender kena squeeze di dua suit.

Doubleton
pegang dua kartu di suatu suit.

Down
gugur.

Draw
seri

Drive out
memaksa lawan memainkan kartu tertentu.

Drop

Memainkan sesuatu tanpa finesse


Drury
(1) awalnya, respon 2-club oleh tangan yg sudah pernah pass untuk menyatakan pegangan maksimum;
(2) pada zaman modern, sering disebut Drury-fit, respon 2-club oleh tangan yg sudah pernah pass untuk menyatakan fit kepada pembukaan major partner yang terlalu kuat untuk sekedar single raise.

Duck
(1) memainkan kartu kecil kendati pegang kartu lebih tinggi;
(2) menyerahkan trik.

Duke of Cumberland deal
a swindler's deal from whist, in which the mark holds all top cards in all suits except one, in which he holds king-jack-nine (or, in one version where the whist dealer is expected to lead a trump, king-jack-nine-seven) but cannot take a trick with the weak suit as trumps.

Dummy / meja
(1) partnernya declarer;

Dummy play
permainan yang dilakukan declarer.

Dummy reversal
ruff dengan truf pada tangan yang panjang truf sampai truf ditangan lainnya lebih panjang.

Duplicate bridge
fBentuk pertandingan bridge dimana pasangan peserta punya kesempatan memainkan kartu yang sama.

Duplication of values
kedua partner mempunyai point yang kuat pada suit yang sama, umumnya kerugian bagi pasangan tersebut.



E


East / Timur
salah satu posisi duduk dalam permainan bridge, biasanya sebelah kanan deklerer pada diagram yang standar.

Eastern Scientific
gaya penawaran dengan sistem 5 kartu majors, forcing notrump response,  two-over-one kuat, dan strong notrumps dengan transfers.

East-West / Timur -Barat
satu dari dua partnershipo; pihak bertahan dalam diagram yang standard.

Echo
memainkan kartu tinggi kemudian kartu yang lebih rendahpada suit yang sama; [Umumnya menyatakan attitude, berminat atau tidak berminat, atau jumlah suit, genap atu ganjil pada suatu suit.].

EHAA
akronim untuk Every Hand An Adventure, sistem penawaran yang didasarkan pada pembukaan notrump sangat lemah (10-12 point), 4-kartu majors, dan weak-2 di semua warna.

Eight ever, nine never
Aturan umum dalam menentukan kapan finesse bila kehilangan queen. Disarankan untuk melakukan finesse jika kedua tangan pegang 8 atau kurang kartu dan melakukan drop jika 9 lembar atau lebih .

Eleven Rule
Aturan sebelas.

Elimination play
penghilangan kartu keluar yang aman dari tangan lawan (baik dengan ruff berulang atau memaksa mereka membuangnya), biasanya sebelum endplay.

Elope
memenangkan trik dengan truf yang bukan tertinggi.

Elopement
method of play based on scoring tricks by ruffing with trumps that are not high.

Ely
Culbertson Four-Five Notrump [disebut sesuai penemunya, Ely Culbertson]

Encouraging
sinyal yang meminta partner untuk lead atau melanjutkan suit tertentu;

Encrypted
carrying a meaning determined by a new, superseding, or additionally-clarified partnership agreement that (i) came into force later than the beginning of current deal and (ii) is based on information that may have become available to some players but not others. [For examples, see Encrypted call and Encrypted signal. Most common bidding and defensive card-play agreements are not encrypted, even though their interpretations may benefit from knowledge available to only some players, because the governing partnership agreement does not change. Suppose, for instance, that a defender makes a lead from equal cards that establishes a suit at notrump. It is often agreed that the card chosen is a suit-preference signal--high card suggests entry, strength or interest in a relatively high-ranking suit; low card refers to a low-ranking suit. Even though the partner of a player giving such a signal could sometimes better interpret it because on knowledge that the defense but not the declarer possesses, the signal is not encrypted because the agreement in force, high card means high suit etc., does not change during the deal.]

Encrypted auction
see Encrypted call.

Encrypted call (sometimes Encrypted auction)
a call that is encrypted by agreement. [Example: North-South agree that a two-notrump response to a major-suit opening is a game-forcing raise promising either the ace or king of trumps but not both, and that opener's new-suit rebid shows a short suit when responder has the ace of trumps or a long suit when repsonder has the king of trumps. Opener's new-suit rebid is encrypted, because it can be deciphered only by a player who holds or later discovers the location of the ace or king of spades. Note that, under this agreement, opener might well choose not to use a new-suit rebid when he lacked both top spades.]

Encrypted signal
a defensive card-play signal that is encrypted by agreement. [Example: East-West agree that when declarer first shows out of a suit in which the defenders' distribution is not clear by the end of that trick, future East-West fundamental signal meanings will be determined by Plan A (high encourages, high even, high suit-preference for high suit) when West has the defenders' lowest remaining card in that suit, or by Plan B (low encourages, low even, low suit-preference for high suit) when East has that card. Should such a situation arise, East-West's later signals are encrypted, because they can be deciphered only by someone who knows or later discovers the location of that lowest card.]

Ending
(1) a position of the cards with relatively few remaining in each hand; [in a three-card ending, each player has three cards remaining]
(2) a position of the cards with some special identifying characteristic, typically occurring towards the end of the play.

Endplay
(1) (verb) force an opponent to lead disadvantageously;
(2) (noun) the position of the cards so resulting.

End-signal
a call indicating that the next bid made by that player will be an attempt to name the final contract. [Example: An end-signal of four diamonds is sometimes used (in relay-oriented methods) as an end-signal. Partner is expected to bid four hearts, after which the end-signaler can pass, bid four spades expecting partner to pass, etc.]

En passant
(of a trump that is not high) by virtue of favorable location behind a higher trump. [Example: Spades are trumps, and the remaining spades are East's seven and South's (declarer's) five. By leading, prior to trick thirteen, a plain suit from North that South can ruff, declarer wins a trick with the spade five en passant.]

Enter
(1) (in play) use an entry; transfer the lead to the opposite hand.
(2) (in bidding) after the opponents have opened the bidding, for the first time for your side bid, or suggest with a takeout double that partner bid, after the opponents have bid.
(3) (in a tournament) participate.

Entry
(1) a card that can win a trick and thereby gain the lead for its holder;
(2) seating assignment given to a tournament participant, in effect a receipt for the entry fee.

Entry squeeze
a squeeze in which one of the victim's busy cards forestalls an entry.

Entry-shifting squeeze
a squeeze in which the operator takes advantage of the ability to win the current and/or some future trick in the squeeze-card suit in either hand after the squeezee has played to a squeeze trick.

Equal
(1) (of cards) having equivalent rank.
(2) See: Vulnerability conditions.

Equal-level conversions
See: Minimum equal-level conversions.

Equals
cards adjacent in rank (as king and queen), and thus equivalent in trick-taking power when held by the same player.

Escape
remove to a different contract (usually by changing strains).

Escape suit
a (usually long) suit to which a player can turn if in trouble in the bidding.

Establish
make into winning cards by removing higher cards of the suit.

Established
(1) (of a suit) consisting of winning cards;
(2) (of a revoke) no longer correctable.

Estimate
guess at the score achieved on a deal or over a session.

Etiquette
courteous table behavior.

Even
(1) (of a suit split) exactly equal; [Example: a three-three split is an even split.]
(2) (of a card) with an even number of pips (the 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10);
(3) (of a suit holding) of even parity.

Exclusion
(of a call) showing length in, or asking for information about, all suits other than the one named.

Exclusion Blackwood/Key-Card Blackwood
a form of Blackwood in which partner is asked to show aces/key cards except in a particular suit.

Exit
get off lead.

Exit card
a card used to effect an exit.

Expert
a superior player.

Exposed card
(1) a card whose face becomes visible at an incorrect time under the laws;
(2) a card that must be played in accordance with a penalty.

Exposed hand
dummy (meaning 2).

Extended responsive double
an informatory double by overcaller's partner over a raise.

Extras
(slang) extra values.

Extra values
significantly more than the minimum strength or potential indicated by earlier bidding.

Extra trick
overtrick.



F



Falsecard
kartu tinggi yang tidak perlu (atau, sebuah kartu kecil bukannya kartu besar) yang dimainkan dengan maksud mengelabui.

False preference
memperlihatkan ketertarikan pada satu suit kendatipun memegang lebih banyak kartu di suit lain seperti yang ditunjukkan partner.

Fast arrival
suatu loncatan ke suatu level penawaran yang menyangkal pegang kekuatan ekstra. [contoh: satu heart--dua clubs--dua spades--empat spades memperlihatkan dukungan spade tetapi support dengan response dua-club yang minimum].

Favorable
kondisi papan: kita aman, lawan bahaya.

Feature
honor kartu tinggi (biasanya as atau king; kadang-kadang as, king atau queen).

Final contract
tawaran terakhir yang dibuat.

Finesse
sebuah usaha mengambil keuntungan dari lokasi satu atau lebih kartu yang tidak dipunyai.

First hand / tangan pertama
dealer.

Fishbein
sebuah cara defense melawan pembukaan preemptif: double = penalti, suit diatasnya sebagai for takeout.

Fit
(1) dukungan untuk partner;
(2) kombinasi gabungan pegangan dalam satu suit dengan partner. [Pada 4-4 fit, masing2 partner punya 4 lembar di suit tersebut.].

Fit-showing jump
suatu tawaran loncat untuk menunjukkan panjang di uit tersebut dan juga dukungan untuk suit partner.

Five-card majors
sebuah pengertian antara partners bahwa pembukaan di suit major didasarkan pada pegangan sedikitnya 5 lembar.

Flannery
pembukaan tingkat-2 (biasanya 2D, kadang-kadang 2H) untuk memperlihatkan 11-15 dengan 5 lembar heart dan 4 lembar spade.

Flat hand
pegangan dengan distribusi 4-3-3-3.

Flat board / push board / kit
tidak ada skor

Flint
response 3D atas pembukaan 2NT, persiapan untuk sign off di 3 major.

Follow
memainkan suit yang play sama dengan yang di-lead.

Force to
menjamin bahwa penawaran sampai di tingkat tertentu, seperti "force to game," "force to level 5," atau "force to slam."

Forcing
membutuhkan pengertian partner agar tidak pass.

Forcing club
pembukaan 1C artifisial yang menyatakan kuat;

Forcing notrump
response satu-notrump atas pembukaan major sebagai tawaran forcing (tetapi tidak harus kuat).

Forcing pass
suatu tawaran pass yang meminta partner melakukan sesuatu aksi dan tidak membiarkan lawan membeli kontrak tanpa di-double.

Forcing raise
suatu dukungan yang memperlihatkan nilai sedikitnya sampai game.

Forcing Stayman
Stayman dimana rebid dua major oleh penawar dua-club adalah forcing.

Fork
(1) garpu.
(2) posisi-akhir.
(3) suatu posisi dimana pihak lawan punya pilihan yang merugikan mereka.

Fouled board
board yang salah distribusinya.

Four-card majors
metode penawaran yang mengizinkan pembukaan di waran major dengan hanya 4 lembar (sangat populer pada awal permainan bridge, dan sudah tidak populer di era elektronis sekarang ini).

Four-suit transfers
variasi dari Jacoby transfers dimana terhadap pembukaan 1-notrump, response two diamonds, two hearts, two spades dan two notrump menyatakan transfer ke hearts, spades, clubs dan diamonds.

Fourteen thirty (juga 1430 atau 14-30)
variasi dari Key-Card Blackwood dimana five clubs menyatakan 1 atau 4 key cards, five diamonds menyatakan 0 atau 3.

Fourth hand
(1) pemain keempat yang mempunyai kesempatana untuk menawar (sebelah kanan dealer);
(2) pemain keempat yang memainkan kartu pada suatu trik.

Fourth-suit forcing
penawaran di suatu warna yang belum dibid sama sekali(jadi suit ke-4 yang akn dibid) yang tidak harus menyatakan bahwa suit tersebut ingin dijadikan truf.

Freak
distribusi yang aneh dan pincang.

Free bid
suatu tawaran yang dilakukan ketika tidak perlu menawar yang memungkinkan partner melakukan tawaran lainnya.

Free finesse
finesse yang dilakukan tanpa adanya resiko karena sudah pasti berhasil.

Free raise
tawaran bebas dalam bentuk dukungan ke suit partner.

Frozen
suit yang tidak bisa dimainkan oleh satu atau kedua pihak manapun tanpa kerugian. [contoh klasiknya adalah Timur-Barat: Utara pegang  queen-10, South pegang as-kecil, Timur pegang king dan Barat pegang jack.]

Fulfill
memenuhi kontrak.





G


Gadget
(slang) a convention designed to cover a specific bidding situation rather than an entire class of auctions.

Gambit
the taking a of risk (such as the deliberate sacrifice of a trick) in hope of gaining a large reward.

Gambling three notrump
a three-notrump opening based on a long, solid minor suit.

Game
a score of 100 or more points below the line; 100 or more in trick score.

Game all
kondisi papan semua bahaya.

Game contract
kontrak di zona game.

Game-force
a call that requests partner to continue bidding until game is reached.

Game-forcing bid
a bid that requests partner to continue bidding until game is reached.

Game invitation
a call that requests partner to bid game with maximum values for earlier actions.

Game-try
undangan ke game.

Garbage
(slang) poor values; a poor hand; a poor hand for the previous bidding.

Garbage Stayman
a partnership agreement that a two-club response to a one-notrump opening may be based on a weak hand (as opposed to the game-invitational-or-better requirement of traditional Stayman methods).

Gardener
a one-notrump overcall to show either a strong notrump or a weak hand with an escape suit.

Gerber
a conventional four-club bid asking partner to show a count of aces.

Ghoulie
a form of bridge that does not play out non-game-going part-scores and uses goulash dealing methods after unplayed outcomes.

Gladiator
a method of responding to one notrump based on a two-club puppet to two diamonds.

Go in with
play (a high card); go up with; rise with.

Goldwater's rule
"Always accept a lead out of turn." (Based on the theory that someone who doesn't know who is on lead is unlikely to play effectively.)

Good
(1) established;
(2) consisting of all winners.

Goren system
a derivative of the Culbertson system that described hand valuation in points (where Culbertson had used honor tricks) and replaced the older version as the standard American system, a position it held for several decades.

Go to bed with
(slang) fail to take a trick with [usually, of a card that could have won a trick in a straightforward manner].

Goulash
(1) a deal in which the cards are distributed in large packets (5,5,3 or 5,4,4) instead of one at a time;
(2) the same as (1), but using the unshuffled remains of a passed out or unplayed deal (thus tending to produce freak distributions).

Grand coup
a trump coup of the reduction type in which the side-suit cards ruffed are winners.

Grand National
one of the major American national team championships, a qualifying -plus-knockout event in which teams represent geographical areas.

Grand slam
tawaran di tingkat 7

Grand-slam force
an artificial bid, usually five notrump, asking partner to bid a grand slam with two of the top three trump honors.

Grosvenor gambit (sometimes just "Grosvenor")
a play that cannot gain and might lose but is virtually certain to break even because an opponent will assume it would never have been made.

Guard
(1) (noun) a holding that will prevent the opponents from taking a large number of tricks in a given suit; stopper;
(2) (verb) prevent the opponents from turning a particular card or cards into winners;
(3) (noun) a card or cards held to prevent the opponents from turning a particular card or cards into winners;
(4) (noun) a lower card or cards held to prevent the opponents from using high cards to drop a higher card (usually an honor) in the same suit. [Usage: In the holding king-deuce, the deuce is a guard for the king, preventing an opponent from dropping the king with the ace.]

Guarded
(of a card, usually an honor) accompanied by sufficient guards (meaning 4).

Guard squeeze
a squeeze in which the discard of one of the victim's busy cards exposes partner to a finesse.

Guide card
a set of instructions for a the movement of a pair from table to table in a duplicate bridge movement.





H

Half table
meja yang hanya ada 1 pasang pemain.

Hamilton
Cappelletti.

Hamman's Rule
"jika 3NT adalah salah satu alternatif, pilihlah."

Hand
(1) one of the players;
(2) the cards held by a player;
(3) deal (meaning 2);
(4) deal (meaning 3).

-hand
indicating the position at the table in bidding order (thus, dealer is first hand, the player left of the dealer is second hand, and so forth ).

Handicap
score adjustment based on seeding.

Hand pattern
suit distribution.

Hand record
a permanent record of the cards, bidding and play of a deal.

HCP
Singkatan High Card Point ; A=4,K=3, Q=2, J=1-points.

Hearts
Suit ranking kedua; symbol: H.

Help suit
a suit in which high cards in partner's hand will be valuable.

Hesitation
a break in the usual tempo.

Hexagonal squeeze
a squeeze in which pressure is brought to bear against each opponent in each of three suits.

High
(1) of winning rank.
(2) currently top-ranking of its suit;
(3) (slang) high-card points.

High card
honor card.

High-card points
(1) valuation points awarded to specific honor cards;
(2) specifically 4-3-2-1-points. [See Points.]

High Gerber
five clubs used to ask for aces.

High-low signal
echo.

Hit
(1) (slang) double;
(2) (slang) ruff;
(3) (slang) (relating to a dummy) come down; track.

Hold
(1) (verb) (slang) prevent declarer from making undeserved tricks;
(2) (verb) have a particular card or card combination;
(3) (verb) retain (the lead);
(4) (verb) win a trick although not the master card. [Example: The king held = it won the trick even though someone else still held the ace.]

Holding
cards in one's hand.

Hold off
delay the taking of a winner.

Hold-up
act of holding off; hold off.

Honor
ace, king, queen, jack or ten.

Honors
a holding that will entitle its possessor to an honor bonus.

Honor-tricks
a hand valuation method in which honors and honor combinations are assigned point values (ace is 1, ace-king is 2, and so forth).

Hook
(slang) finesse.

House player
an employee of a rubber-bridge club who often plays to complete a foursome.

Howell movement
a tournament arrangement in which most or all pairs do not remain seated at fixed compass directions (North-South or East-West) and may meet any of the other pairs.

HUM
acronym for Highly Unusual Method.



I

Idiot coup
the creation of a situation in which an opponent is given an opportunity to do something foolish.

Idle
(of a card) suitable to be discarded or played without loss.

Illegal
not in accordance with the laws.

IMP or imp
(1) (noun) International Match Points; a special unit of scoring used in tournament play.
(2) (verb) calculate the imp score on a deal.

IMPs
bridge scored by International Match Points.

Immaterial squeeze
a squeeze in which (at least) one of the plays by the victim loses a tactical or strategic asset but does not directly yield a trick to the other side.

Impossible negative
a negative one-diamond response to a strong one-club opening with the values for a positive response and three-suited distribution.

Impropriety
a violation of the proprieties.

Individual
a form of duplicate bridge contest in which each player's score is kept separately from those of all the others.

In front of
to the right of; under.

Instant matchpoints
matchpoint scoring from a predetermined scale (as opposed to results achieved in actual play).

Insufficient bid
a bid that is illegal because it is not higher than the previous bid.

Insurance bid
a sacrifice against a very high-scoring contract.

Interference
a call that disrupts the flow of the opponents' bidding sequence.

Interior sequence
a sequence that does not include the highest card held in a suit. [King-jack-ten is an interior sequence; the jack-ten are in sequence, but are not in sequence with the king.].

Intermediate
(1) (of a card) roughly of the rank of ten or nine;
(2) (of a jump overcall) showing fair values, usually interpreted as a hand in the minimum opening-bid range with a strong six-card or longer suit;
(3) (of an opening two-bid) just under the values for a forcing opening bid.

International Bridge Press Association
the major organization of bridge writers.

International Match Points
a form of duplicate-bridge scoring.

Intervene
after an opposing opening bid, to make the first non-pass call for one's side.

Intervening bid
overcall.

Intervention
a double, overcall or cue-bid after an opposing opening bid.

Inverted
opposite in meaning to the natural, usual or traditional (such as inverted raises, where a single raise is stronger than s double raise); sometimes phrased as "upside-down".

Inverted minors
a minor-suit single raise as strong with a minor-suit double raise as weak.

Invitation
request that partner continue to game (or slam) if with maximum values.

Invitational
offering an invitation.

Iron Duke
(slang) a card of significant trick-taking rank. [Usage: (by the second to play to a trick putting up a high card) "Not through the Iron Duke."]

Irregularity
an occurrence not in conformity with the Laws.

Isolate
(1) (of a hand) remove the last entry to the opposite hand;
(2) (of a menace card) remove the guard of one opponent.



J

Jack

Kartu tertinggi keempat dalam permainan bridge


Jack denies
an opening lead convention in which a lead of the jack denies any higher honor.

Jacoby transfers
responses to one notrump of two diamonds to show hearts and two hearts to show spades; responses to two notrump of three diamonds to show hearts and three hearts to show spades.

Jacoby two notrump
a two-notrump response as a game-going raise of partner's major-suit opening plus a continuation structure that includes shortness-showing rebids by opener.

Jettison
a discard, particularly the discard of a blocking card.

Jordan
a response of two notrump over a takeout double to show a constructive hand in support of partner's suit; sometimes played with "flip-flop" when opener's suit is a minor, so that two notrump is a preemptive raise and three of opener's suit is constructive.

Josephine
the Grand-Slam Force. [so-called after for Josephine Culbertson, but actually invented by Ely Culbertson]

Journalist leads
a method of opening leads based on attitude leads against notrump contracts, Rusinow and count leads against suit contracts.

Jump
(1) (verb) bid at a higher level than the minimum required to be legal.
(2) (adjective) at a higher level than the minimum required to be legal.

Jump-overcall
(1) (noun) an overcall at higher than minimum level, as an overcall of two spades or three clubs over a one-heart opening.
(2) (verb) to make a bid described in (1).

Jump-preference
(1) (noun) preference at higher than minimum level, as in the partnership sequence one club -- one heart -- one spade -- three clubs.
(2) (verb) to make a bid described in (1).

Jump-raise
(1) (noun) a raise at higher than minimum level, as in the partnership sequence one club -- one heart -- three hearts.
(2) (verb) to make a bid described in (1).

Jump-rebid
(1) (noun) a same-suit rebid at higher than minimum level, as in the partnership sequence one club -- one heart -- three clubs.
(2) (verb) to make a bid described in (1).

Jump-shift
(1) (noun) a jump bid in a new suit.
(2) (verb) to make a bid described in (1).

Junior
a player under the age of 25.


K

Kaplan Inversion
use of a one-notrump response to a one-heart opening to show length in spades combined with a one-spade response to a one-heart opening as a relay (similar to a forcing one-notrump response).

Kaplan-Sheinwold
a bidding system based on five-card majors and weak notrump openings.

KCB
See: Key-Card Blackwood.

Keeping the bidding open
refusing to pass, to allow partner another turn to call.

Key-Card Blackwood
a variant of the Blackwood convention in which the king of trumps is counted as if it were an ace.

Kibitzer
spectator.

Kick
(1) (slang) double;
(2) (slang) ruff;
(3) (slang) blunder away.

Kickback
a variant of key-card Blackwood in which the asking bid is one step above four of the agreed trump suit.

Kill
(1) (slang) make (a hand, such as dummy) unusable through lack of an entry.
(2) (slang) overtake (a card), so as to prevent from winning the trick).
(3) (slang) defeat (a contract)

King

Kartu tertinggi kedua dalam permainan bridge


Kiss of death
a score of minus 200 at matchpoints when the maximum possible contract is at the part-score level.

Kock-Werner redouble
a redouble of a penalty double of an overcall for takeout.

Kokish
a rebid of two hearts by opener after two clubs (artificial; strong) -- two diamonds (artificial; weak or possibly weak) -- ? to show either (a) a balanced hand too strong for a two-notrump rebid, usually 25-26 points; or (b) hearts. After responder's two-spade relay, opener shows (a) with a third bid of two notrump, (b) with any other third bid.

Kokish relay
the two-spade rebid in the partnership sequence two clubs (artificial, strong)--two diamonds (artificial, weak)--two hearts--two spades, to enable opener to clarify whether his opening is based on hearts or a balanced hand.

Knockout
(1) a form of tournament in which the winners of matches progress to the next round.
(2) a three-suit squeeze in which one of the losing options is to part with a trump.

Knock out
force out so as to establish lower cards.

K-S
Kaplan-Sheinwold.



L

Landy
over an opponent's notrump opening, the cheapest club overcall to show length in both majors.

Last train
the only remaining slam-try below the security level, used to encourage a further slam-try but unrelated to the holding in the suit bid. [Example partnership sequence: one spade--three spades--four diamonds--four hearts].

Late play
the contesting of a board after the usual time period for a tournament session (presumably caused by an irregularity or delay).

Lavinthal
suit-preference.

Law of total tricks
a property of bridge deals that, on average, the total number of tricks that can be taken, double-dummy, by both sides, equals the combined length of the two sides' trump suits.

Lawful (capitalized)
strategically conforming to the Law of Total Tricks (for example, bidding to the same level as a partnership's total trumps in a competitive or potentially competitive situation
Laydown
(slang) easily makable; cold; frigid; icy.

Lead
(1) (noun) the first card played to a trick;
(2) (verb) to play such a card.

Lead back
return; play the same suit partner led previously (particularly when the earlier lead was the opening lead).

Lead-directing bid (or double)
a bid (or penalty double) that requests partner to make the opening lead in a particular suit.

Lead-directing raise
a raise that suggests a particular lead to partner.

Leader
(1) player who must lead (play the first card) to a trick;
(2) the opening leader.

Lead through
play from the right of.

Lead through strength
a principle of defensive card play; to play a suit when honors lie to your left.

Lead up to
play from the left of.

Lead up to weakness
a principle of defensive card play; to play a suit when no honors lie to your right.

Leap
jump (bid), especially more than a minimum jump.

Leaping Michaels
a jump to four of a minor over an opposing major-suit weak two-bid to show a two-suiter with the suit bid and the unbid major.

lebensohl
(usually lower case initial letter, superseding all other capitalization rules, to imply its having been erroneously named) a two-notrump bid asking partner to bid three clubs, after which a suit bid is weak, in conjunction with direct three-level suit bids to show values; typical applications include responses to one notrump over an intervening overcall and advancing the takeout double of an opposing weak two-bid.

Legal
in accordance with the laws; permissible under the laws.

Length
the number of cards held in suit.

Length points
valuation points awarded to long suits.

Level
(1) the number of tricks contracted for (e.g.: the one level comprises bids that contract for seven tricks; thus, it includes the bids one club, one diamond one heart, one spade and one notrump).
(2) in an auction, the distance between consecutive bids in the same strain (e.g.: two spades is one level above one spade); five steps
(3) the attribute of a bid (or contract) that describes whether it is a part-score, game or slam.

LHO
abbreviation for left-hand opponent; the player to one's left.

Life Master
the highest ranking within the American Contract Bridge League, based on masterpoints.

Light
(1) lacking in values; minimum;
(2) (slang) shy of the contract. [Two light = down two.];
(3) based on relatively low requirements. [Light openings require less strength than sound openings.]

Lightner double
a double, especially of a slam, to suggest an unusual opening lead.

Limit
(1) define (a hand) precisely (through a call);
(2) (slang) maximum potential. [Our limit was four spades = the most was could make was four spades.].

Limit bid
a bid that describes the nature of a hand fairly precisely.

Limited
(of a call) with specified lower and upper strength requirements, the latter below the maximum possible.

Limit raise
(1) a raise that invites game;
(2) a raise from one to three that shows the range of strength just under that required to force to game.

Line
(1) the portion of a scorecard that separates points that do and do not count towards game;
(2) general approach of the declarer or the defenders; [Usage: a line of play; a line of defense.]

Link
in a squeeze position, an entry in a suit that includes a menace.

Little slam
small slam.

Live
(adjective) of an auction, one in which the opponents have not limited their values (hence typically more dangerous to enter than one where the opponents' strength ranges are known).

Locked
(slang) restricted to or away from ["Locked in dummy" means unable to get the lead out of dummy; "locked out of dummy" means unable to get the lead to dummy.].

Long
having great length; having more cards of a suit than another hand (as in "long hand," the hand with more trumps than partner's).

Long cards
cards remaining in a suit after all the other players have been exhausted.

Long hand
a hand with more trumps than in partner's hand.

Long suit
suit of unusually great length.

Loser
(1) trick that must be lost; card that must be played to such a trick; card that cannot under present circumstances win a trick if played.
(2) unit of (negative) hand valuation: see Losing trick count

Loser-on-loser
a card-play technique (usually for declarer) that attempts to gain by playing two losing cards to the same trick.

Losing trick count
a hand valuation method in which, in each suit, one loser is counted for a missing ace, missing king in a suit of two or more cards, and missing queen in a suit of three or more cards.

Low
(1) (adjective for card) not of significant trick-taking ability.
(2) (noun; singular and plural) card of insignificant trick-taking ability. [Example usages: ace-low, three low, ace-low-fifth.]

Low-high signal
in defensive card play, to play a relatively higher card than one already played in the same suit. See: High-low signal.



M


Major penalty card
a card prematurely exposed deliberately, or any honor prematurely exposed.

Major suit
spades or hearts.

Major tenace
a holding of the first- and third-highest then outstanding cards of a suit. [Example: The ace-queen of a suit before that suit has been played.]

Make
(1) (verb) fulfill (a contract);
(2) (verb) capture a trick, or a number of tricks.
(3) (slang) (noun) successful contract.

Marked finesse
a finesse against a marked card.

Master
(1) (adjective) the highest outstanding card of a suit;
(2) (noun) an expert player.

Master bid
(1) an imaginative, perhaps brilliant, bid, typically with lesser values than usually associated with similar actions;
(2) (said sarcastically) an unusual bid that leads to disaster.

Master hand
the hand having (or eventually having) the predominant trump length.

Masterpoint
a unit of measurement of achievement in tournament play.

Match
(1) a unit of play in knockout and related forms of team competition;
(2) a sizable number of deals played against the same team (occasionally, against the same pair) with the results combined into one scoring unit.

Matchpoint
(verb) calculate the score on a deal in matchpoints.

Matchpoints
(1) a common form of scoring in duplicate bridge in which a pair scores one unit for every other pair whose score they best and one-half unit for every other pair whose score they tie.
(2) the scoring units in (1).

Mathe
(1) a defense against big-club openings in which a double shows the major suits and one notrump shows the minor suits;
(2) an asking-bid to locate a short suit in the hand of a responder who offered a direct limit major-suit raise.

Maximal overcall
a bid that leaves the opponents no room below the next level of the suit they have already bid (e.g., one-spade opening, two-heart overcall).

Maximal overcall double
the double of a maximal overcall, or of the raise of a maximal overcall, as a game invitation.

Maximum
a relatively strong holding for the previous calls made.

McCabe Adjunct
a two-notrump response to a weak two-bid as a puppet to three clubs, usually preliminary to signing off at three of a suit underranking opener's.

McKenney
suit-preference signal.

Menace
a card that an opponent must guard lest it become a winner.

Merrimac coup (also Merrimack Coup)
the sacrifice of a high card to deny an opponent a timely entry.

Michaels cue-bid
a direct cue-bid over an opening bid (e.g., North one club, East two clubs) to show distributional strength. In its modern form, a minor-suit cue-bid shows length in both majors, a major-suit cue-bid shows length in the other major and one of the minors (second suit unspecified).

Middle honors
kings, queens and jacks.

Mini-
(prefix) of lesser strength; weaker than the usual kind (e.g., Mini-Roman two diamonds: a two-diamond opening showing the same hand-type but less strength than a Roman two diamonds.)

Minimum
a relatively weak holding for the previous calls made.

Minimum equal-level conversions
an agreement between partners that doubler's new-suit bid that does not raise the bidding level of a new-suit advance does not show extra strength. [Example auction where such an agreement might apply: one heart -- double -- pass -- two clubs -- pass -- two diamonds.]

Mini notrump
a one-notrump opening showing less than usual opening bid strength (typically 9-12 or 10-12 points).

Mini-splinter
a splinter raise describing the values to invite game.

Minor penalty card
a card below honor rank inadvertently exposed prematurely.

Minor suit
diamonds or clubs.

Minor honor
lower honor; (usually, but not necessarily) queen, jack or ten.

Minor tenace
the second-highest outstanding card of a suit and at least one other card where the other card (or cards) is at best the fourth highest of the suit then outstanding (such as king-jack or king-deuce of a suit before any cards of that suit have been played).

Minorwood
a variant of key-card Blackwood in which the asking bid is four of the agreed minor suit.

Mirror
(1) (of distributions) identical.
(2) (of tournament movements) simultaneously held in parallel (as in a Mirror Mitchell, a team-of-four movement in which the pairs are organized into two Mitchell arrangements).
Misbid
(1) (noun) a bid that is inappropriate because it is of the wrong kind, or is misdescriptive to partner (as opposed to an underbid or an overbid).
(2) (verb) to err by making a misbid (1).

Misfit
a pair of partnership hands, each having poor support for the long suits of the other; no combined eight-card or greater trump holding despite skewed distributions.

Mitchell movement
a tournament arrangement in which all pairs remain seated at fixed compass directions (North-South or East-West) and meet only pairs seated in the opposite direction.

Mixed
(1) (of a partnership) composed of one player of each sex;
(2) (of a tournament) one in which every competing pair is mixed;
(3) (of a call, usually a raise) having both preemptive and constructive aspects;
(4) having varying (especially conflicting) properties or objectives.

Morton's fork coup
the forcing of an opponent to choose between establishing one or more extra tricks in the suit led and losing the opportunity to win a trick in the suit led.

Movement
the arrangement and rearrangement of players and boards to achieve appropriate replays and comparisons in duplicate bridge. [Related entries include: American Whist Movement, Flower, Howell, Mirror Mitchell, Mitchell, New England Relay, Relay Boards, Relay Table, Scrambled Mitchell, Rainbow, Shomate, Stagger, Stanza, Three-Quarter, Web.]

Moysian fit
a partnership trump holding of four cards in one hand and three in the other.

MUD
acronym for Middle-Up-Down; the lead of the middle card from three low cards.

Multi
a two-diamond opening showing one of several hand-types, usually including some weak and some strong. [One popular variation: two diamonds shows a weak two-bid with long hearts, a weak two-bid with long spades, or a balanced hand with 21-22 points].



N

Namyats
an opening bid of four clubs or four diamonds to show, respectively, a strong four-heart or four-spade opening.

National
the highest tournament level within one country or geographical unit.

Natural
(1) (of a call) indicating a desire to play in the named (or, if not a bid, in the last-named) strain without offering information relevant to a specific different strain;
(2) (of a bidding system) consisting largely or entirely of agreements that most actions, or most early-in-the-auction actions, are natural.

Negative
denying strength or interest in a higher-level contract.

Negative double
a takeout or informatory double of an overcall.

Negative free bid
a nonforcing suit bid by responder over an intervening overcall.

Negative inference
a deduction made from the absence of an occurrence.

Negative response
a bid denying certain values.

Negative slam double
in a competitive auction, the double of a slam to deny defensive tricks.

Neither side vulnerable
neither side having scored a game.

Neutral lead
a lead that neither threatens to develop tricks nor risks the loss of tricks.

New minor forcing
a form of Checkback Stayman.

New suit
a suit not previously bid.

No bid
an improper form of "pass."

No call
an improper form of "pass" and a misnomer as well, for each player must call at his or her turn, even if that call is a pass.

Nonforcing
allowing partner to pass under the partnership understanding.

Nonforcing Stayman
Stayman in which a rebid of two of a major by the two-club bidder is not forcing (originally defined as invitational, now sometimes played as weak).

North
salah seorang dari 4 pemain, biasanya sebagai dummy dalam diagram standard.

North-South / Utara - Selatan
salah satu pasangan yang berkompetisi; pihak deklerer dalam diagram yang standard.

Not vulnerable
tidak bahaya.

Notrump
jenis kontrak dalam penawaran dimana permainan berlangsung tanpa adanya truf.

Notrump distribution
distribusi balance.

Novice
pemula.



O

OBAR
opponents bid and raise.

Obligatory
(1) (adjective for finesse) in the form of a duck in the hope that an opposing high card will drop [For example, if declarer, with king=fourth opposite queen-fourth, leads to an honor that holds the trick, the usual play is to play low from both hands on the next round of the suit.]
(2) (adjective for falsecard) required to preserve best chances. [For example, if declarer, South, leads a low card toward dummy's king-jack-low and wins the trick, West has an obligatory falsecard of the queen when the king is cashed (bexause declarer presumably already knws that he holds that card. Other such falsecards are more subtle.]

Odd-even discards
a defensive signaling method in which odd-numbered cards (the three, the five, etc.) are encouraging, the even-numbered ones are discouraging and may have suit-preference implications.

Odd trick
a trick taken by declarer in excess of six.

Off
(1) (slang) down; set;
(2) (slang) offside.

Off the top
(adjective) describing tricks that can be taken without gaining the lead or lost before gaining the lead [Usage: Four spades was down off the top = the defenders could take at least four tricks before declarer gained the lead.]

Offender
a player in violation of the laws or regulations.

Off-shape
not having one of the usual or expected distributions.

Offside
unfavorably located;

Ogust
the use of artificial step rebids by an opening weak two-bidder after a two-notrump response. [The most popular version: three clubs = weak hand, weak suit; three diamonds = weak hand, strong suit; three hearts = strong hand, weak suit; three spades = strong hand, strong suit; three notrump = six-card suit headed by ace-king-queen.].

Olympiad
one of the groups of world championships.

On
(1) (slang) makable;
(2) (slang) onside; favorably located.

On score
having a part-score. ["60 on score" = having a part-score of 60.].

One-bid
a bid of one; a bid at the one level (usually refers to the opening bid).

One-club system
a bidding method based on an artificial one-club opening.

One-over-one response
the bid of a higher-ranking suit at the one-level after partner's opening bid in a different suit.

One-round force
a call that requests that partner not pass on the current round of bidding, without sending any message about later in the auction.

One-suiter
a hand including only one suit of four or more cards, but generally not applied to 4-3-3-3 distribution, and often not to 5-3-3-2 distribution.

Onside
favorably located.

Open
(1) (verb) make the first bid;
(2) (verb) be the first to play (a suit);
(3) (adjective for event) in tournament play, unrestricted as to who may enter.
(4) (adjective for hand) dummy's; visible.
(5) (adjective for room) permitting spectators.

Opener
the player making the first bid.

Opener's rebid
the second bid (if any) made by the opener.

Opening (or Opening bid)
the first bid made in an auction.

Opening bidder
the player making the first bid.

Opening lead
the lead to the first trick, made by the player to the left of the declarer before dummy's cards are exposed.

Opening leader
the player, to declarer's left, who leads to the first trick.

Open room
in tournament play, a room in which spectators are permitted.

Opponent
adversary; member of the other partnership.

Optional double
a double that, by partnership agreement, allows partner the option of passing (for penalties) or bidding on.

Our hand
(slang) a deal on which "our side" can make a higher contract than the opponents.

Out
(1) having no cards in (a suit); having no more cards in (a suit);
(2) not currently an active player. [Usage: sitting out = not one of the four players at the table.]

Over
(applies to players during the auction and to cards) to the left of; behind.

Overbid
(1) (verb) bid more than one's partnership can make;
(2) (verb) bid unwarrantedly high (result aside);
(3) (verb) overcall;
(4) (noun) the bid made in (meaning 1), (meaning 2) or (meaning 3).

Overbidder
(1) one who overbids;
(2) overcaller.

Overboard
(slang) having bid above a makable contract.

Overcall
(1) (noun) a bid following an opposing bid.
(2) (verb) to make the call described in (1).

Overcaller
a player who overcalls.

Overruff
ruff with a higher trump after another player ruffs.

Overtake
play a higher card of the suit led as the highest such card already played to the trick. [Usually refers to playing a higher card than partners.]

Overtrick
trick made in excess of those required to fulfill the contract.

Overtrump
overruff.



P

Pair
one partnership; two players acting as partners; North-South or East-West.

Pairs
a duplicate-bridge tournament among partnerships.

Par
the result on a deal on which both sides do as well as possible.

Par contest
an event based on pre-set deals with scores awarded for superior technique in bidding and play.

Partial
part-score.

Partial elimination
an imperfect elimination that will succeed only against certain distributions of the opponents' cards.

Partner
(1) (noun) the other member of one's partnership.
(2) (verb) act as the other member of a partnership with.

Partnership
(1) one of the two competing teams of two players;
(2) the totality of understandings between two players.

Partnership bidding
said of an auction in which the opponents do nothing except pass.

Partnership understanding
an agreement between partners.

Part-score
a trick score of less than 100; less than game; fewer than 100 points scored below the line.

Pass
(1) (noun) a call indicating no desire to bid, double, or redouble at that turn;
(2) (verb) to make such a call;
(3) (verb) (after leading from declarer's hand or dummy,) to play a lower card from the opposite hand when a higher card was available.

Passed hand
a player who passed when given the opportunity to open the bidding (thus, one who has denied having the values required to open).

Pass and pull
make a forcing pass and then bid over partner's double.

Passed out
(1) (of a contract) allowed to stand;
(2) (of a deal) thrown in because no player bid.

Passive
(of a defensive play) not risking tricks but not tending to promote any immediately.

Pass-or-correct
(adjective) of a call, requesting partner either to pass or to make an alternative call, depending on the (as yet unspecified) hand-type held. [Example: After an opening bid of two diamonds to show a weak two-bid in spades or hearts, a two-heart response is pass-or-correct: opener passes with hearts or bids two spades (i.e., corrects) with spades.]

Pass out
(1) (verb) make the fourth consecutive pass, so that the cards are thrown in and dealt again;
(2) (verb) make the third consecutive pass, so that the last bid becomes the final contract;
(3) (adjective for seat) position in which a pass will end the auction.

Pattern
hand distribution; distribution (meaning 1).

Pearson points
high-card points plus spade length. [Sometimes used in a guideline for whether or not to open the bidding in fourth position, especially at matchpoints: Open when you have at least 14 Pearson points.]

Penalty
(1) points awarded to the defenders when declarer fails to fulfill his contract;
(2) a remedy for an infraction provided by the laws.

Penalty card
an exposed card subjecting its holder's side to restrictions. (See also Major penalty card, Minor penalty card.)

Penalty double
a double intended as an attempt to obtain a penalty against the opposing contract (as opposed to a "takeout double" suggesting that partner bid).

Penalty pass
the pass of a double not intended as a penalty double.

Percentage play
the play most likely to achieve a specific goal.

Peter
(slang) echo; high-low signal.

Phantom
(1) (noun) an imaginary pair deemed present to complete a tournament movement.
(2) (noun) a sacrifice against a contract that would have failed. [Also phantom sacrifice or phantom save.]
(3) (adjective) describing a sacrifice against a contract that would have failed.

Pick-a-slam
(adjective) of a call [which is most commonly five notrump], requesting partner to make a six-level bid that expresses a preference for a strain for the final contract (or, if made in an "impossible" strain, suggests a further choice)

Pick up
(1) (of a card) capture during the play;
(2) (of a suit) play without loss, or with minimal loss;
(3) (of a partner or team) recently met; not through prearrangement;
(4) (adjective; usually hyphenated) collected from a table in a tournament. [Usage: pick-up slip = paper on which the result of each deal in a tournanent is recorded.]

Picture bid
bid that shows specific values or types of values, rather than general strength or overall hand-type. [Example: A jump in a suit to show values concentrated there is a picture bid.]

Piece
(1) (slang) part-score;
(2) (slang) a high honor [A piece in spades means a spade honor.];
(3) (slang) any card. [In general card-playing lingo, "a piece in spades" sometimes means any spade.]

Pin
(verb) lead a card to cause a lower-ranking card to drop underneath (especially when there are yet higher cards of the suit outstanding).

Pip
(1) (noun) spot card; spot (marking on a card); suit symbol; spade, heart, diamond, or club.
(2) (slang) outrank (on a trick) or defeat by the narrowest possible margin.

Pivot
(1) (noun) in a sequence of rubbers or chukkers, the player who remains in the same physical position at the table;
(2) (noun) in a Howell movement, the player (if any) who remains stationary;
(3) (verb) change partners.
(4) (adjective for suit) guarded or potentially guarded by both opponents (in a double-suqeeze matrix).
(5) = chukker [especially in Great Britain]

Plain suit
a suit other than the trump suit.

Play
(1) (noun) the phase of bridge in which the players try to take tricks to determine the outcome of bets made during the bidding;
(2) (verb) act as declarer;
(3) (verb) place (a card) in the center of the table.

Playable
(1) (of a contract) at least reasonable, even if not necessarily best.
(2) (of an agreement or system) not in itself necessarily leading to inferior results.

Player
one of the four participants.

Play for
(verb) assume a holding of (as the basis for declarer play or defense) [Usage: South had to play for diamonds to break three-three. = South assumed that diamonds would break three-three as the basis of further planning or reasoning.]

Playing trick
a combination of cards likely to take a trick during the play, hence a measure of offensive strength.

PLOB
acronym for petty, little odious bid; an artificial, investigatory rebid by responder after opener's one-notrump rebid.

Point
(1) a unit of scoring;
(2) a unit of hand valuation;
(3) in describing a squeeze position, a unit of complexity (one point = one two-suit squeeze against one opponent).
(4) a unit of player rating (sometimes masterpoint; sometimes designated by a color or other description to indicate special significance)

Points
Plural of point. Also, sometimes when used in meaning (2), expressing the number of valuation units assigned to each individual high card. For example, 2-1-points assigns two points to each ace, one to each king; 3-2-1-points assigns three points to each ace, two to each king, one to each queen; 4-3-2-1-points [also sometimes HCP and high-card points] assigns four to each ace, three to each king, two to each queen, and one to each jack. Similar formations describe other point-counting schemes.]

Point a board
board-a-match.

Point count
a method of hand valuation in which numerical values (points) are assigned to various features of a hand.

Pointed (suit)
spades or diamonds.

Pop-up squeeze
= show-up squeeze.

Position
(1) location at the table;
(2) order of speaking relative to the dealer; [The dealer is in first position, the player to dealer's left is in second position, and so on.]
(3) seat; [First position means first seat, and so forth.].
(4) chair. [First chair means first position, and so forth.]

Positional
(1) (adjective for squeeze) maturing only against the opponent in one particular table location.
(2) (adjective for honors or for high cards in general) gaining in trick-taking strength because of the relative location (usually on the right) of a particular opponent.
(3) (adjective for call) placing or tending to place the more advantageously located partner as declarer.

Positive response
a bid affirming certain values.

Post-mortem
(slang) discussion of deals following play.

Prebalance
to act in direct position as one would in reopening (i.e., balance) position. [Example: To bid three clubs after one spade -- pass -- two spades -- ? with the values usually associated with one spade -- pass -- two spades -- pass -- pass -- three clubs would be a prebalance.]

Precision
a bidding system based on a big-club opening and five-card majors.

Precision two diamonds
a two-diamond opening to show a minimum-range opening hand with no long suit and shortness in diamonds.

Preempt
preemptive.

Preemptive
(1) (adjective) intended to hinder the enemy through the removal of bidding space from the auction;
(2) (noun) a preemptive bid, or a bid that acts preemptively no matter how intended.

Prefer
offer a preference.

Preference
indication of choice of strain from among those suggested by partner.

Prepared bid
a bid made with a mind to the possibilities on later rounds of bidding.

Present count
a defensive card-play method in which a count signal relates to the number of cards presently held in a suit.

Primary
(1) (describing strength or high-card values) of the most useful or highest kind;
(2) (describing a control) first-round;
(3) (describing support) enough to guarantee at least an eight-card fit.

Professional
(1) person who makes a living from bridge;
(2) paid partner or teammate.

Progression
in a tournament, the movement of players and deals.

Progressive squeeze
a squeeze position in which a newly created winner produces another squeeze.

Promote
(1) (of a card) move to or closer to winning rank;
(2) (of a hand's value) add to the number of valuation points counted for.

Proprieties
the section of bridge laws that deals with personal or partnership behavior.

Protect
(1) (slang) (verb) balance;
(2) (slang) (verb) reopen;
(3) (verb) accompany (a higher card) so as to protect from capture;
(4) (verb) guard (a suit).

Protected suit
a suit including a stopper.

Protest
appeal.

Proven finesse
a finesse that is guaranteed to win because of the previous play.

Pseudo finesse
an attempt to gain through a defender's failure to cover a card that cannot be led for an actual finesse, such as leading the queen from queen-low-doubleton in dummy up to ace-low-doubleton in declarer's hand.

Pseudo squeeze
a position in which a player is not squeezed but may lose one or more tricks through misreading the position.

Psych
(1) (slang) (noun) psychic (meaning 2);
(2) (slang) (verb) to make a psychic bid.

Psychic
(noun) a call made without the values normally associated with it, to deceive the opposition.

Pull
(1) draw (trumps);
(2) remove partner's double.

Pump
(slang) force out a trump; = force (2).

Punch
(1) (slang) force out a trump;
(2) (slang) (often with "out") remove.

Punt
(1) (verb) make a call that is (or is intended to be) noncommittal or nondescriptive; avoid making any definitive statement;
(2) (noun) a noncommittal or nondescriptive call.

Puppet
(1) (noun) transfer (meaning 2) [= a call that asks partner to make a certain call regardless of his holding];
(2) (verb) to use a puppet (meaning 1).

Puppet Stayman
a form of the Stayman convention in which a (one- or two-) notrump opener is asked to make the cheapest bid over a club takeout unless holding a five-card major suit.

Push
(1) (slang) (verb) bid more than justified by the values held;
(2) (slang) (verb) force the opponents to a higher level;
(3) (slang) (noun) in team-of-four contests, a no-score result on a deal; wash; washout.
(4) (slang) (verb) in team-of-four contests, to create or to achieve a no-score result on a deal.
(5) (slang) (verb) lead.
(6) (slang) (adjective) having no net score.

Pushed
(slang) having no net score.

Pusher
(1) (slang) overbidder;
(2) (slang) intermediate card that can be led through an opponent's honor for a finesse.


Q

Qualifying
babak penyisihan

Quantitative
menanyakan apakah partner mempunyai point minimum atau maksimum, jika maksimum berlanjut.

Queen
Kartu tertinggi ketiga dalam permainan bridge.

Queen-ask
pada roman key-card Blackwood (RKCB), penanya RKCB Blackwood bid yang paling rendah bukan truf menanyakan apakah partner punya queen trumps.

Quick trick
kartu tinggi yang dipunyai yang kemungkinan mendapatkan trik pada putaran awal suit tersebut. [Nilai quick-trick yang umum adalah: as-king = 2; as-queen = 1.5; as atau king-queen = 1; king = 0.5.].

Quotient
perbandingan point yang dimenangkan (imp +) dengan jumlah point kalah (imp -), sering digunakan sebagai penentu kemenangan bila ada nilai yang sama.



R

Raise
(1) (verb) make a further bid in a suit bid by partner.
(2) (noun) a strain-suggesting bid in a suit bid by partner.
(3) (noun) a hand that meets the requirements for supporting a suit bid by partner.

Raiser
a player who raises.

Rank
(1) the relative position of suits or cards as applied to play or bidding;
(2) level achieved by a tournament player.

RCO Two-Bids [RCO = Rank/Color/Oddment]
opening two-bids to show less than an opening bid and at least five-five in two suits: for two hearts, majors or minors (sorted by rank); for two spades, reds or blacks (sorted by color); for two notrump, pointed suits or rounded suits (sorted by oddment).

Rebid
(1) (noun) a player's second bid;
(2) (verb) to bid again a suit already bid by the same player.

Rebiddable suit
a suit long and/or strong enough to be bid again in a given bidding situation.

Recap (or recapitulation)
summary of results in a tournament.

Recorder
a tournament or organization official who keeps track of reports of non-standard behavior.

Rectify the count
lose one or more tricks to adjust the difference between the number of tricks to be played and the number of winners available to the appropriate quantity (most often one) for a planned squeeze.

Red suits
hearts and diamonds.

Redeal
replacement for a cancelled deal.

Redouble
a call that raises the scoring of a contract already doubled.

Redwood
a variant of key-card Blackwood in which the asking bid is four hearts when diamonds is the agreed suit or four diamonds when clubs is the agreed suit; see also Kickback.

Re-entry
a card that will provide the lead at a later time, after a different entry bas been used.

Refuse
duck.

Regional
a tournament level above sectional and below national.

Reisinger
one of the major American national team championships, scored at board-a-match.

Reject
(1) (of a game-try or a slam-try or an invitation to take a particular action) fail either to make the call suggested or invited, or to move in that direction; state or imply unwillingness to cooperate with partner's suggestion
(2) (of a transfer) fail to make the call suggested by the transfer

Relay
(1) (noun) an artificial call, very often the cheapest bid, possibly nondescriptive or at most partially descriptive, that asks or allows partner to offer a description.
(2) (verb) to use a relay (meaning 1).
(3) (adjective for system) a bidding method in which a high proportion of constructive auctions make use of relays.

Examples of meaning (1) (the lettered calls are relays):

SOUTH     WEST     NORTH     EAST
1 NT     Pass     2 C(a)    
(a) Stayman; asks opener for information without directly describing responder's hand. Some relays are more descriptive than others; for example, a two-diamond response to one-notrump might be game-forcing Stayman.

SOUTH     WEST     NORTH     EAST
1 NT     Pass     2 D*     Pass
2 H(b)                
*transfer to hearts (Jacoby transfer)
(b) completion of transfer; says little (in some contexts nothing) about the South hand

SOUTH     WEST     NORTH     EAST
1 NT     Pass     4 D*     Pass
4 H(c)                
*puppet to four hearts (Texas transfer)
(c) completion of transfer; says nothing about the South hand
Similarly, the expected reply to any puppet acts as a relay.

SOUTH     WEST     NORTH     EAST
2 C     Pass     2 D     Pass
2 H*     Pass     2 S(d)    
*Kokish: either hearts or a game-going balanced hand
(d) relay enabling opener to clarify hand-type (by bidding either two notrump if balanced or higher with hearts)

Relay boards
the boards used at a relay table (hence shared with another table).

Relay system
a method based on extensive use of relays.

Relay table
in a tournament movement, a table that shares boards with another table.

Remove
take out to a new bid, especially a double.

Renounce
fail to follow suit (when able to do so); revoke.

Reopen
(1) take an action other than pass after a bid, a double, or a redouble has been followed by two passes.
(2) refuse to allow the opponents to buy the contract at the present level.

Reopening
(1) (adjective) in a position to end the auction by passing. [e.g., one spade--pass--pass--?]
(2) (noun) a non-pass action taken by a player in reopening position.

Repeating
(adjective for squeeze) leading to the establishment of a new winner as a squeeze card (typically resulting in a multi-trick gain).

Repechage
a tournament form in which entrants temporarily eliminated from the main event reenter after outstanding performance in a secondary event.

Replier
a player who makes a call based on partner's request for specific information.

Rerebid
(1) (noun) a player's third bid;
(2) (verb) to bid again a suit already bid twice by the same player.

Rescue
remove the current bid to a different one. [Usage: Usually refers to changing the contract after partner's bid either has been doubled for penalty or is expected to be set heavily even if undoubled.]

Rescue redouble
S.O.S. redouble

Respond
make a bid after an opening bid by partner.

Responder
partner of the opener.

Response
bid by opener's partner at first opportunity after the opening bid.

Responsive double
after partner's informatory double, an informatory double over an opponent's raise. [Example sequence: one spade--double--two spades--double.]

Restricted choice
a mathematically based guideline for analyzing suit combinations; oversimplified somewhat, it says that a player is more likely to have a holding from which there was no choice of plays than one from which there was.

Result player
one who determines the soundness of bids and plays by the way they turned out; Monday-morning quarterback.

Retain the lead
lead a winning card, thus keep the right to lead to the next trick.

Retransfer
transfer into a suit previously transfered into.

Return
lead back.

Revalue
adjust hand valuation based on the progress of the auction.

Reverse
(1) (noun) a non-jump bid in a new suit that bypasses a bid in a lower-ranking suit already bid by the same player. [North one club, South one spade, North two hearts is a reverse (bypasses two clubs). But North one club, South one heart, North one spade is not (no bypass).].
(2) (verb) to make a bid described in (1).

Reverse dummy
See: Dummy reversal.

Reverse signals
See: Upside-down.

Review the bidding
repeat the calls made.

Revolving discard
a discard of a card in one suit to send a message relating to another suit.

Revoke
fail to follow suit when able to do so (an infraction of the laws).

RHO
an abbreviation for right-hand opponent; the player to one's right.

Rhythm double
a penalty double based on earlier penalty doubles' having been made rather than on an appropriate holding.

Right side
(noun) more favorable placement of declarer (compared to the opposite side of the table).

Rightside
(verb) (slang) to place the declarer on the more favorable side (usually to put a particular opponent on lead).

Ripstra
a two-of-a-minor overcall of one notrump to show length in both majors and simultaneously indicate the longer minor.

Rise
play a high card as opposed to a low card; go up.

RKCB
acronym for Roman Key-Card Blackwood.

Robert coup
the lead (possibly including a trump reduction to be able to lead) of a plain-suit card in order to create a later split tenace in trumps. [Typical ending: West holds KQ10 of trumps, North J2 of trumps and a plain-suit card, South A3 of trumps and a plain-suit card of a different suit. By leading South's plain-suit card, North-South can take two tricks.]

Rolling
(1) (adjective for Blackwood and Gerber) in which the cheapest rebid outside the agreed suit asks for kings wholesale.
(2) (adjective for four notrump) encouraging partner to bid slam without making explicit reference to any specific control.

Roman
(1) (adjective for two-club or two-diamond opening) indicating a three-suiter;
(2) (adjective for Blackwood, Gerber or Key-Card Blackwood) using step replies as follows: one step = zero or three aces or key cards; two steps = one or four aces or key cards; three steps = two or five aces or key cards without the queen of the agreed suit*; four steps = two or five aces or key cards plus the queen of the agreed suit* [* indicates the modern form; originally, the three-, four- and five-step replies narrowed the description of which two aces were held]
(3) (adjective for jump overcall) indicating length in the bid suit and the next highest unbid suit;
(4) (adjective for asking-bid) calling for step responses to announce controls in the asking suit (one step = no control; two steps = king or singleton; three steps = ace or void; four steps = ace-king, perhaps ace-queen);
(5) (adjective for discard or signal) odd-even;
(6) (adjective for lead) Rusinow.

RONF
acronym for Raise Only NonForce. [Usage: Usually applied as a summary of methods for responding to a weak two-bid.]

Rosenblum Cup
the world open knockout team championship.

Rosenkranz double
a double by advancer to show a high honor in overcaller's suit.

Rotation
the order of calls and plays (clockwise).

Roth-Stone
a bidding system based on sound opening bids, five-card majors, forcing one-notrump responses, preemptive jump overcalls and responses, and negative doubles.

Round
(1) (slang) (of a hand) having 4-3-3-3 distribution;
(2) (of the auction) one turn to call for each player;
(3) (of the play of a suit) which time it is led; [The first round of a suit means the first time it is led.]
(4) (of a control, with a number) which time the suit is played the value will prevent the opponents from winning the trick; [Example: an ace, or a void when there is a trump suit, is a first-round control.]
(5) (in tournament play) a period of time during which players remain at the same table.
(6) (in tournament play) a unit of simultaneous activities with a common goal (e.g., the quarterfinal round).

Rounded (suit)
hearts or clubs.

Round-robin
tournament form in which each entrant, or each entrant within a group, opposes every other.

Rubber
best two of three games; the traditional unit of play in bridge.

Rubensohl
transfer responses over overcalls.

Ruff
(verb) trump;
(noun) the play a trump on the lead of another suit.

Ruffers
cards that can be trumped in the opposite hand to produce a source of tricks.

Ruff and discard
the ability to trump in one hand and discard (usually a loser) from the other.

Ruff and sluff
See: Ruff and discard.

Ruff out
establish by ruffing.

Ruffing finesse
a finesse that takes advantage of the ability to trump a high card in a plain suit. [Dummy has king-queen of a side suit in which declarer is void. Declarer can lead dummy's king, ruff RHO's ace, and later make a trick with the queen.].

Ruffing value
shortness that may lead to ruffing tricks.

Rule of Eleven
a rule (from whist) that says: if partner has led fourth best, the number of cards outstanding above the card led is the spot on the card, subtracted from 11.

Rule of Twenty
a guideline that suggests opening the bidding when the sum of highcard points and the two longest suit lengths is at least 20.

Rule of Two and Three
a rule propounded by Ely Culbertson as a guide for preemptive bids: you should be within two tricks of your contract when vulnerable and within three tricks when not vulnerable.

Ruling
decision by a tournament director or committee.

Run
(1) play off winners in a suit;
(2) (slang) escape to a new strain (particularly after being doubled in a different one).

Running
(of a suit) solid.

Runout
bid made to escape from an undesirable contract, especially from a doubled contract.

Rusinow lead
the conventional lead of the second highest of equal honors.



S

Sacrifice
deliberately bid above one's trick-taking potential in the hope of losing fewer points than if the opponents were allowed to play and make their contract.

Safety level
security level.

Safety play
the surest line to make the contract, disregarding extra tricks that might be made in some other way.

Sandwich overcall
a bid made after both opponents have bid.

Save
(slang) (noun and verb) sacrifice.

SAYC
acronym for Standard American Yellow Card, the system defined by the current set of listings on a form of convention card identified by its color.

Scissors coup
a loser-on-loser play intended to deny an entry to a particular opponent.

Score
(1) a numerical result of a deal, match, session or event;
(2) (slang) take a trick with; [Usage: Score the queen of spades = take a trick with the queen of spades.]
(3) (slang) win. [Usage: Score three spades and two hearts = take three spade tricks and two heart tricks.]

Score slip
(1) traveler;
(2) pick-up slip.

Scramble
(1) run to a new contract;
(2) take tricks without attempting to retain control of trumps.

Scrambled Mitchell
a Mitchell movement adjusted with direction changes to balance the groups against which each pair is compared.

Screen
a divider that prevents a player from seeing his partner.

Screenmate
opponent on the same side of the screen.

Seat
(1) place at a table;
(2) (slang) position (meaning 2).

Secondary
(1) (describing a call) made at a player's second turn to call or second opportunity to act;
(2) (describing honors or high-card strength) lower than the strongest values but still potentially useful;
(3) (describing a control) second-round;
(4) (describing support) less than primary; sometimes, the length just below primary.

Second hand
(1) the player second to have the opportunity to bid (i.e., at the dealer's left);
(2) the player second to play to a trick.

Second hand low
a principle of card play from whist.

Section
grouping of entrants at a tournament.

Sectional
a tournament level above local and below regional.

Security level
the bidding height to which it is presumed that the partnership can bid without significant risk, even with no additional values beond those already promised by the earlier bidding. (Example: If South opens one spade and North offers a game-forcing raise, the North-South security level at that point is four spades.)

Seed
(1) an entrant given a rank in a seeding (meaning 1) procedure; [Usage: first seed = top seed = highest-ranked entrant.]
(2) an entrant selected as seeded (highly rated) as opposed to unseeded (low rated).

Seeded
(1) selected in a seeding (meaning 2) procedure;
(2) rated higher than the current opponent.

Seeding
(1) arranging entrants, through objective or subjective criteria, approximately in order of strength;
(2) selecting a small number of entrants believed to be stronger than the rest.

See-Saw squeeze
= entry-shifting squeeze.

Semi-balanced hand
hand with suit distribution 5-4-2-2 or 6-3-2-2.

Semi-forcing
(as an adjective for one-notrump response) wide-range, including hands of game-invitational strength, over which opener will rebid as over a forcing one-notrump response, but not including game-going hands (so that opener is permitted to pass).

Semi-solid
(of a suit) with roughly one additional loser compared to a solid suit; likely to have one loser without any contribution from partner.

Senior
player over 55 years of age.

Sequence
(1) all calls made in an auction;
(2) an auction;
(3) two or more cards of adjacent ranks.

Serious
strongly suggestive or invitational, as a serious slam-try as opposed to a mild slam-try or mere indication of.willingness to cooperate in an investigation.

Session
(1) a group of deals played consecutively without a break;
(2) a group of deals whose scores are added together;
(3) one morning, afternoon or evening of play, usually of 24 to 36 deals.

Set
(1) defeat; prevent from fulfilling the contract;
(2) playing in fixed partnerships.

Set game
rubber bridge or four-deal bridge with fixed partnerships.

Set up
(1) (noun) established;
(2) (verb) establish.

Shape
(1) (slang) distribution.
(2) (of a suit) pointed or rounded. [Spades and diamonds are pointed suits; hearts and clubs are rounded suits.]

Shift
(1) lead a different suit;
(2) bid a new suit.

Shoot
take a desperate chance in an effort to achieve a very high score; = swing (3).

Short club
opening one club on a suit of only three cards (usually because of a systemic prohibition against opening a four-card major suit).

Short diamond
opening one diamond on a suit of only three cards (usually because of a systemic prohibition against opening a four-card major suit).

Short hand
a hand with fewer trumps than in partner's hand.

Short-suit points
valuation points awarded to short suits because of their trick taking ability (or the trick-taking ability of the long suits whose possession they imply).

Short-suit game try
game-invitational action that specifies a singleton or void suit.

Show out
fail to follow suit.

Show-up squeeze
a squeeze position in which declarer refuses a finesse in the ending, because if the missing card were onside it would have already been played.

Shuffle
mix the cards in an attempt to obtain a random distribution.

Side game / event
at a tournament, a lesser event run simultaneously with a major championship.

Side suit
(1) a suit other than the trump suit;
(2) a suit of four or more cards other than the trump suit in declarer's or dummy's hand.
(3) a suit of significant length but secondary to the main suit in a player's hand (such as the four-card suit in a 7-4-1-1 distribution).

Signals
conventional plays made by the defenders to give each other information.

Signoff
(1) (noun) a call that requests partner to pass; bar
(2) (noun) a call that denies additional values.
(3) (adjective) having the meaning of a signoff

Sign off
(verb) to make a signoff call.

Simple
(1) (of a bid) not a jump;
(2) (of a finesse) against only one missing card;
(3) (of an overcall) a minimum defensive bid in a new suit;
(4) (of a raise) a bid in partner's suit one level higher (also single raise);
(5) (of a squeeze) against one opponent in two suits.

Simultaneous pairs
an event played at the same time in different locations, using the same deals.

Single dummy
based on the sight of only the dummy and one's own cards. [Compare with "double dummy," which means with sight of all four hands.]

Singleton
a holding of one card in a suit.

Sitout
round in a duplicate bridge movement for which a pair has no opponents (because of a half-table).

Skip
a round in a tournament movement where players bypass the table they would reach according to their regular pattern.

Skip-bid warning
in tournament play, a warning to an opponent to be prepared to pause before taking his next action (to avoid giving illegal information to partner).

Slam
any bid of six (small slam) or seven (grand slam).

Slam-force
a call that by agreement requires that partner not pass until slam is reached (or an opposing contract is doubled).

Slam-try
a call that invites partner to bid a slam.

Slow
(of a trick or of high-card values) needing to be established before it can be cashed.

Slow arrival
a jump to the level to which the bidding is already forced showing specific values. [e.g., one heart--two clubs--two spades--four spades to show unusually strong spades].

Sluff
discard.

Small slam
a bid of six.

Smith (or Smith echo)
on defense against a notrump contract, using the play of an encouraging or discouraging cardin the suit declarer attacks to show encouragement or discouragement for the suit of the opening lead.

Smolen
after notrump opener's denial, a bid of three of a major by Stayman responder to show four cards in the bid major and five in the other.

Smother play
an endplay to enable the capture of an onside trump when a higher card behind it has insufficient supporting cards for a finesse. [Example: Spades trump. North has spade ace, heart ace. West has spade king-ten. South has spade queen-jack. East has club ace-king. If East is on lead, West's king of spades is smothered.]

SNAP
strong notrump after passing; a one-notrump response by a passed hand to show 9-12 points.

Snapdragon
overcaller's partner's double of a new-suit response to show length in the remaining unbid suit and at least a mild fit for overcaller's suit. [Example: one diamond--one heart--one spade--double to show club length plus at least two hearts.]

Snatch
(1) (slang) (verb) win or cash immediately, or at the earliest opportunity, or before some particular event of importance;
(2) (slang) (noun) ace.

Soft values
lower honors, usually queens and jack, as compared with aces and kings.

Solid
(of a suit) with no gaps, or with no gaps after the specified card. [Usage: five solid = AKQJ10 (sometimes AKQJx). jack-ten-solid-fifth = J10987.]

Solid suit
a suit strong enough to name as trumps without support from partner; a suit with no losers.

Sominex coup
(slang) to take so long over an action that, whether by accident or design, another player loses concentration.

Sort
arrange one's cards by rank within suit.

S.O.S. redouble
a redouble asking partner to bid.

Sound
(1) full-valued;
(2) based on relatively high requirements; [Example: sound opening bids have higher minimum requirements than light opening bids.]
(3) (of a player) talented; reliable.
(4) (of a contract) worthwhile; likely enough to make to be worth the risk.
South
one of the compass points; one of the four players (usually the declarer) in the standard diagram.

South African Texas
four-level two-step transfer response to notrump openings (four clubs = hearts; four diamonds = spades).

Space
See: Bidding space.

Spades
the highest-ranking suit, symbol: /SP.

Specific kings
a five-notrump follow-up by the Blackwood biddeer to ask partner to cue-bid kings at the six level (as opposed to showing them wholesale with a step response, as in traditional methods).

Speedball
tournament organized with less time per deal than usual.

Spingold Cup
one of the major American national team championships, a knockout event.

Splinter
(1) (noun) a raise (or, less commonly, a bid showing a one-suiter) that shows shortness (singleton or void) in a particular suit.
(1) (verb) to make a call indicating a splinter (1).

Split
(1) (verb) play one of a group of cards equivalent in rank (usually applied to honor cards).
(2) (noun) the distribution of missing cards (e.g., a two-two split of four missing cards).

Split menace
a threat that depends on values in both hands of the side executing a squeeze.

Split notrump(s)
weak notrump nonvulnerable, strong notrump vulnerable.

Split tenace
a tenace composed of values in both partnership hands (such as ace in one hand and queen in the other).

Sponsor
(1) organizing organization of a tournament;
(2) one who hires a partner and/or teammates.

Spot
(1) (noun) spot card;
(2) (slang) (noun) contract.

Spots
(slang) (noun) strong intermediatre cards;

Spot card
any card from deuce through nine.

Spread
(1) (verb) put down the dummy;
(2) (slang) (noun) laydown;
(3) (verb) reveal one's cards (as during a claim or concession).

Sputnik
negative double.

Square hand
hand of 4-3-3-3 distribution.

Squeeze
a play that forces a hand to part with a needed card.

Squeeze-endplay
strip-squeeze.

Squeeze card
a card that, when led, effects a squeeze.

Stack
(1) (slang) (noun) unfortunate distribution of the cards.

(2) (verb) prearrange (the cards); fix (the deal)

Stacked
(1) (slang) (of some or all of the cards) unfortunately distributed (usually for declarer).

(2) prearranged.

Stagger
a form of stanza movement for teams of four.

Stand
(slang) pass (usually over a double).

Standard American
standard bidding in America.

Standard American Yellow Card (also SAYC)
the system defined by the current set of listings on a form of convention card identified by its color.

Standard bidding
bidding methods used by most players.

Stanza
(1) in a match, a set of boards played as a unit, after which scores are commpared;
(2) in a duplicate-bridge movement, a set of rounds played and scored independently from other rounds.

Stayman
(1) Stayman convention;
(2) more generally, any call that asks a notrump bidder to show length in a major suit.

Stayman convention
an agreement between partners under which a response of two clubs to an opening bid of one notrump asks opener to bid a four-card major suit if he holds one.

Steal
(1) (of a trick) win with an unusually low card
(2) (of a trick) win without losing the lead
(3) (of a tempo) gain time needed to perform some other function or deprive the oppponents of such time.
(4) (of a contract) make through deception when there was a way to defend successfully. (Also refers to a successful deceptive defense but not usually so applied.)
(5) (of an auction) become declarer at a (perhaps surprisingly) low contract when the opponents could profitably have bid higher.

Step
in an anction, the distance from one bid to the next highest bid. [Example: One diamond is one step above one club.].

Step bid (or response)
a bid (or response) whose meaning derives from the number of steps it is above the previous bid.

Steppingstone
a squeeze in which an opponent is either forced on lead to provide a missing entry or threatened with the use of a blocked winner as an entry.

Stiff
(1) (slang) (adjective) unsupported by low cards. [stiff king = singleton king; queen-jack stiff = queen-jack doubleton]
(2) (slang) (noun) singleton.
(3) (slang) (verb) discard protection from or all other cards in a suit except. [stiff the ace of clubs = discard all clubs other than the ace]

Stop
(1) an exclamation to inform the opponents of a special occurrence (such as a skip-bid warning);
(2) stopper.

Stopper
a holding that will (or is likely to, or might) prevent the opponents from immediately running a large number of tricks in a suit at notrump.

Stopper-ask
a call that asks partner to bid notrump with a stopper in the opponents' suit.

Stopper-bid
a bid that indicates a stopper (for notrump purposes) in the suit bid.

Strain
one of the four suits or notrump; the non-numerical element of a bid; denomination.

Stratified
form of tournament in which entrants of different rank compete in different events, held simultaneously.

Strength
valuation of a hand; honor cards.

Strip
(1) remove an opponent's exit cards;
(2) remove all cards of a suit in one's partnership's hands so that an opponent cannot lead that suit without conceding a ruff-and-discard.

Strip-squeeze
a squeeze in which one of the threats is against an exit card needed to avoid a throw-in. [Example: At notrump, if South cashes a winner to leave himself with ace-queen of spades and king of hearts, and West must discard from king-jack of spades and ace-queen of hearts, West is strip-squeezed.]

Striped-tail ape double
a double of a laydown contract intended to prevent the opponents from bidding higher.

Strong notrump
a one-notrump opening to show a balanced hand above the minimum opening strength range (often 15-17 or 16-18 points).

Strong pass
a pass prior to any bid to show the strength usually associated with an opening bid.

Strong two-bid
an opening of two of a suit to show a very powerful hand.

Submarine
(slang) duck; underplay one or more winners (usually used when the purpose is an attempt to rectify the count for a squeeze).

Substitute
(1) (of a board) played to replace a board that cannot be completed or scored in the usual way;
(2) (of a player) replacement;
(3) (of a call) one replacing an illegal call.

Suction
a suit overcall of one notrump to show length in either the next higher suit (where clubs is deemed to be above spades) or the other two unbid suits. (Sometimes used in conjunction with a two-noturmp overcall to show non-touching suits.) [Example: a Suction two-club overcall shows either diamonds or both majors.]

Suicide squeeze
a squeeze in which the partner of the squeezee leads the squeeze card or its equivalent. [Not an entirely appropriate term.]

Suit
(1) one of the four divisions of the pack; spades, hearts, diamonds, or clubs;
(2) with a trump suit, as opposed to notrump (as in "suit contract").

Suit combination
a partnership's combined holding in one suit.

Suit distribution
number of cards in each suit.

Suit-preference signal
a defensive signaling method in which encouragement, discouragement or preference is shown for a suit other than the one of the card played.

Superaccept
(of a transfer) act at a higher level than the transfer suggested, in an encouraging way [such as one notrump -- two hearts (transfer to spades) -- three spades]

Superblitz
a win by such a large amount or extent that the winner gets maximum score and the loser a negative score that makes the total scores less than zero.

Super Gerber
a five-club bid to ask partner to show the number of aces held.

Support
(1) (noun) cards in a suit bid by partner;
(2) (verb) raise.

Support double
(1) opener's double of an overcall to show three-card support for the suit of partner's response.
(2) any double that shows a fit for partner's suit.

Support redouble
(1) opener's redouble of the double of a response to show three-card support for responder's suit.
(2) any redouble that shows a fit for partner's suit.

Swing
(1) (noun) the difference between the scores of two teams;
(2) (noun) the difference between a score actually made and one that might have been made;
(3) (verb) take chances in an attempt to create unusual or especially good results in an effort to make up lost ground.
(4) (slang) (verb) play a round of (a suit).
(5) (slang) (noun) a round (of a suit). [Usage: Declarer pulled trumps in one swing.]

Swing deal
a deal that provides a swing.

Swindle
deceptive move.

Swiss
(1) a tournament movement in which teams with similar scores oppose one another;
(2) a four-of-a-minor response to a major opening to show a strong supporting hand (has many variations).

Switch
(1) lead a different suit;
(2) (as in "arrow switch," referring to the directional arrows used to show directions on table cards at tournaments) interchanging the directions of the pairs.

System
the collection of partnership understandings about bidding.



T

Table / Meja
Salah satu sarana untuk bermain bridge

Table feel (juga dikenal table presence)
mendapatkan indikasi dari perilaku lawan (sah) atau perilaku partner (yang ini tidak sah), selain dari tawaran dan permainannya.

Takeout
(1) memindahkan satu kontrak ke jenis yang lain;
(2) menyarankan partner untuk menawar.

Takeout double
suatu double yang menyarankan partner untuk menawar(sebagai lawan dari double penalti yang menyarankannya pass).

Team / Regu / Team-of-four / Virtal
empat pemain (biasanya enam) yang berlomba atas nama satu regu.

Teammate
pemain dalam satu team;

Tempo
(1) waktu (dalam hal trik selama permainan) yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan suatu aksi atau rencana;
(2) kesempatan untuk lead pada suatu saat dalam permainan;
(3) kecepatan dimana seorang pemain melaksanakan suatu tawaran atau permainan.

Tenace / Garpu
Pegangan yang tidak berurut, seperti as-queen atau king-jack.

Ten implies
suatu konvensi kartu pembuka dimana lead angka sepuluh memperlihatkan urutan interior yang ada As, king atau queen.

Texas
Transfer di tingkat empat atas pembukaan notrump (4 hearts = spades, 4 diamonds = hearts).

Third and fifth / tiga dan lima
suatu metoda kartu pembuka dimana kartu tertinggi ketiga di lead dari pegangan 3 atau 4 kartu, yang ke lima jika lebih panjnag.

Third from even, low from odd
suatu metoda kartu pembuka dimana kartu tertinggi ketiga di lead dari jumlah kartu genap, yang terkecil dari pegangan ganjil; bagian dari (dan yang paling membedakan) lead Journalist terhadap kontrak warna.

Third hand
(1) pemain ketiga yang punya kesempatan untuk menawar;
(2) pemain ketiga untuk bermain pada suatu trik.

Third hand high
prinsip bermain yang diadopsi dari whist.

Threat
kartu pengancam.

Three-quarter movement
sebuah variasi dari Howell movement.

Three-suiter
suatu pegangan dengan 3 suit 4 kartu atau lebih, jadi distribusinya adalah 4-4-4-1 atau 5-4-4-0.

Throw-in play
endplay.

Timing
urutan permainan, atau rencana aktifitas selama permainan;

Top
dalam perhitungan pasangan, nilai tertinggi dalam sautu papan.
Top dan bottom
Suatu konvensi yang memperlihatkan panjang di suit tertinggi dan terendah [Penggunaan: Timur:1H, Selatan:2H dalam konvensi top dan bottom berarti spade dan club]

Top of nothing
Metode lead yang menyatakan lead besar bukan honor mengindikasikan tidak ada honor di suit tersebut.

Total tricks
jumlah trik yang bisa dimenangkan masing2 pasangan, double-dummy, pada truf terpanjang mereka.

Total trumps
jumlah truf untuk masing2 pasangan.

Tournament director
Pimpinan pertandingan

Transfer
(1) tawaran yang memperlihatkan suit panjang pada suit yang bukan ditawar;
(2) suatu tawaran yang meminta partner melakukan suatu penawaran tak peduli pegangannya bagaimana; [dalam hal ini juga disebut Puppet.]
(3) Memindahkan penjagaan dari satu lawan ke lawan lainnya (dalam hal squeeze).

Trap pass
pass yang dilakukan dengan kekuatan yang sebetulnya cukup untuk melakukan suatu tawaran.

Traveler
Lembaran skor yang menyertai sebuah papan dalam suatu kejuaraan.

Tray
tempat penawaran berlangsung.

Trial bid
game-try (kadang-kadang juga slam-try).

Trick
kumpulan empat kartu, masing2 disumbangkan oleh setiap pemain.

Trick score
skor yang dihadiahkan untuk trik yang dimenangkan.

Triple squeeze: squeeze melawan satu pemain saja yang harus menjaga 3 suit sekaligus.

Triple four by one
distribusi 4-4-4-1

Triple raise
double-jump raise. [contoh: satu spade-empat spades.]

Trump
(1) suatu kartu yang punya ranking di atas kartu lain di suit yang lain;
(2) memainkan kartu truf setelah lawan lead kartu lain.

Trump control
cukup truf untuk mencegah lawan memainkan semua kartu menangnya.

Trump coup
lihat coup.

Trump echo
besar-kecil di warna truf, secara tradisional mengidikasikan adanya minat untuk meneruf, sekarang sering digunakan sebagai sinyal jumlah (biasanya ganjil).

Trump promotion
meningkatkan jumlah trik truf untuk satu pasangan melalui overruf dan uppercut.

Trump squeeze
sebuah variasi dari tema paksa sederhana dimana truf dapat digunakan sebagai penangkap atau suit tersebut dapat dituakan dengan menerufnya.

Trump suit
suatu suit, yang ditentukan dalam penawaran, dimana ranking suit tersebut di atas suit lainnya.

Truscott
suatu defense terhadap penggunaan openings club strong yang yaitu suit yang ditawar memperlihatkan suit tersebut dan suit diatasnya.

Two-club system
sistem penawaran yang memperlihatkan pegangan kuat dengan pembukaan artifisial 2C.

Two-over-one response
Suatu response di suit dengan ranking lebih rendahdari yang ditawar opener, karena itu harus di level dua agar sah.

Two-suiter
suatu pegangan yang mempunyai dua suit yang lebih dari empat kartu.

Two-way
lebih dari satu arti.

Two-way finesse / Finesse dua arah
suatu situasi dimana mungkin kedua lawan memegang kartu kunci yang dicari. [Jika dummy pegang ace-jack-dua dan declarer pegang king-sepuluh-tiga, declarer punya finesse dua arah terhadap queen.].

Two-way Stayman
two clubs sebagai stayman sebagai invite yang dikombinasikan dengan two diamonds sebagai game forcing.


U

Unassuming cue-bid
cue-bid untuk memperlihatkan dukungan yang bagus atas suit overcall dari partner, tetapi tidak harus punya kekuatan yang memaksa ke game.

Unauthorized information
informasi yang tidak sah yang tidak boleh dimanfaatkan, misalnya partner lama punya arti sesuatu.

Unbalanced distribution
distribusi yang ada void, singleton, atau dua suit yang doubletons; distribusi selain 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2 atau 5-3-3-2.

Unbalanced band
pegangan dengan distribusi tidak balance.

Unbid suit
suit yang tidak ditawar selama penawaran.

Unblock
memainkan atau membuang kartu tinggi untuk menghindari terjadi bloking.

Underbid
menawar dari sesuatu yang lebih rendah dari yang bisa dibuat.

Underlead
lead kartu kecil yang seharusnya lead besar, misalnya pegang As, tapi lead kecil dalam permainan truf.

Underruff
melakukan ruff dengan truf yang lebih kecil daripada yang sudah dimainkan pemain lain pada trik yang sama.

Undertrick
trik yang gagal didapatkan declarer, sehingga kontrak gugur.

Undertrump
underruff.

Unfavorable
kondisi papan.

Unguard
membuang kartu penjaganya sehingga menjadi tidak terjaga.

Unguarded
Tidak diikuti oleh kartu lain pada suit yang sama, atau diikuti oleh jumlah kartu yang tidak cukup untuk menghindari terkaman kartu tinggi lawan. Misal pegang Q dengan selemabr kartu kecil, harusnya dua lemabr.

Unlimited
Kekuatan tidak terbatas, misal 1C presisi atau 2C standard.

Unpassed
belum pernah pass sebelum tawaran pertama.

Unpenalty double
double yang dimaksudkan bukan sebagai penalti, misal pada slam double menyatakan 0 trik defense.

Unusual notrump
Tawaran notrump yang artifisial yang menunjukkan distribusi (seringnya 2-suiter minor).

Unusual over unusual
Cara defense terhadap intervensi unusual notrump. [Contoh: Setelah overcall two-notrump atas one spade, metode yang populer adalah three clubs = heart suit, kuat; three diamonds = dukung spade, kuat; three hearts = heart panjang, kekuatan moderat; three spades = dukung spade, kekuatan moderat.].

Up
trik lebih

Uppercut
ruff dengan maksud memaksa keluarnya truf tinggi lawan (biasanya dengan maksud mempromosikan trik truf partner).

Upside-down
berlawanan dengan arti biasanya atau arti selama ini (seperti sinyal upside-down jumlah, dimana kartu besar menyatakan pegang ganjil bukannya berarti genap seperti selama ini); kadangkala disebut "inverted".

Up the line
menginformasikan penawaran yang terendah dulu jika pegang sama panjang; [Respond 1-heart atas pembukaan 1-diamond jika pegang 4-4 di warna major berarti up the line.]



V

Vanderbilt Cup
Salah satu kejuaraan besar nasional antar team di Amerika dengan mengunakan sistem gugur.

Variable notrump
Pembukaan notrump dengan nilai HCP bervariasi tergantung kondisi papan dan tangan pembuka (tangan 1-2, atau tangan 3-4).

Venice Cup
Kejuaraan team bregu putri tingkat dunia.

Victory points / VP
Sistem penilaian untuk banyak team dimana skor sebenarnya dikonversikan ke VP dengan skala tertentu.

Vienna coup
Memainkan satu atau lebih kartu menang untuk mencegah adanya bloking pada posisi squeeze.

Virtual cue-bid
suatu tawaran di warna yang seyogianya punya lawan. Misal one notrump -- pass -- two hearts, transfer ke spades -- bid kita two spades adalah virtual cue-bid.

Vise (juga Vice)
suatu tema paksa dimana tekanan diberikan kepada pemegang dua atau lebih kartu yang mempunyai ranking diantara yang dipunyai lawan yang tidak punya kartu tinggi di suit tersebut. [Contoh: Pada suit tertentu, Barat memiliki As yang terjaga, Selatan king-angka sepuluh, Timur queen-jack. Jika Timur dipaksa melepaskan salah satu honornya, squeeze ini dikenal dengan vise.]

Void
Tidak ada kartu di suit tertentu.

Vu-graph
Metode untuk menampilkan pertandingan bridge ke penonton.

Vulnerable
kondisi papan - bahaya.

Vulnerability
pernyataan sisi yang mana, jika ada, yang bahaya.

Vulnerability conditions /Kondisi papan
equal = tidak ada bahaya atau keduanya bahaya.
favorable = kita tidak bahaya lawan bahaya.
unfavorable = kita bahaya lawan tidak bahaya.


W

Wagner Two Diamonds
Pembukaan two-diamond untuk memperlihatkan weak two-bid di salah satu warna major.

Waiting
nondeskriptif; dilakukan karena bid lain bisa salah arti.

Wallet
jenis board.

Walsh
Sistem penawaran yang berdasar pada Eastern Scientific (kadangkala disebut Western Scientific) yang mencakup beberapa aksi dengan tawaran terbatas dan metode special (secara khusus, untuk respons atas pembukaan one-club, dengan melewati diamonds untuk bid major dengan kekuatan yang kurang dari game-force).

WBF
World Bridge Federation.

Weak jump overcall
overcall meloncat sebagai tawaran preemptif.

Weak jump shift
Respon dengan tawaran loncat pada suit baru sebagai tawaran preemptif.

Weak notrump
Pembukaan satu-notrump dengan pegangan balance dengan rentang point minimum, biasangan 11-14 point.

Weak two-bid
Pembukaan di tingkat dua untuk memperlihatkan pegangan suit panjang dengan kekuatan kurang dari opening bid tingkat satu.

Weiss
defense terhadap preemptif: double dengan sedikitnya dua lembar di warna opener pada pegangan balace atau hampir balance, minor terendah sebagai take out.

West
salah satu posisi dari empat pemain (biasanya sebelah kiri deklerer pada diagram standard).

Western cue-bid
California cue-bid.

Western Scientific
lihat Walsh.

Whist
salah satu cikal bakal permainan bridge.

White against red
Aman  lawan bahaya

White against white
tidak ada yang bahaya

Wide open
(1) kekurangan stopper;
(2) kekurangan control.

Winkle
suatu squeeze atau endplay lainnya yang mengambil keuntungan dari lawan yang tidak bisa menghindari kondisi posisi kartu yang terblokir.

Winner
kartu tinggi; kartu yang bisa dan akan memenangkan trik.

Wolff signoff
pada sistem standard, setelah openermeloncat ke dua notrump, rebid 3-club oleh responder meminta opener bid 3 diamonds (beberapa mengizinkan dukungan ke suit responder), setelah itu rebid responder ke warna asalnya adalah lemah.

Working card
kartu yang bernilai potental untuk pasangannya pada warna truf yang diinginkan.

World Bridge Federation
tOrganisasi bridge international.



XYZ
X
(1) biasanya dengan huruf kecil, berarti kartu kecil;
(2) biasanya dengan huruf besar, artinya double.

XX
redoubled.

Yarborough
Pegangan sangat lemah dan tanpa honor sama sekali;


Zero
Nilai terendah dalam pertandingan pasangan.

Zero or two higher
lead yang deskriptif (biasanya 10 atau 9) yang memperthat shows either the top of a non-interior sequence or the third highest of an interior sequence.



P

 

Last Updated (Thursday, 04 August 2011 21:14)

 
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